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Ajaran Taoisme sudah rusak

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Ajaran Taoisme sudah rusak

Post by Penyaran on Fri Nov 02, 2012 5:05 pm

Dulu masyarakat Tiongkok hanya menyembah Tian (Tuhan yang Maha Esa) seperti halnya agama Samawi tanpa embel-embel dewa-dewinya. Situsnya masih bisa dilihat di Forbidden City, setiap tahun kaisar melakukan ritual pengampunan mewakili rakyatnya dgn mengorbankan sapi (bukan babi) kepada Tian. Tradisi ritual itu berasal darimana yaitu dari Raja Yao yang merupakan keturunan Nabi Nuh as (NuWa dalam bahasa Mandarinnya)

Hal ini dapat dibaca pada buku Allah dan Peradaban Tiongkok Purbakala karangan Samuel Wang dengan Ethel R. Nelson dan buku karangan Andri Wang seorang penganut Taoisme berjudul Dao De Jing, The Wisdom of Lao Zi.

Namun saat ini, kepercayaan tersebut telah sinkritisme atau tercampur dengan ajaran yang lain karena ajaran Tao yang murni telah rusak ketika diteruskan oleh Mensius.

Makanya Han Yu seorang penyair dan penulis besar menyatakan pada artikelnya mengenai Tao (Jalan) dalam kitab Shu Jing : "Apa yang saya sebut sebagai Tao adalah ini : Yao mengajarkan kepada Shun, Shun mengajarkan kepada Yu, Yu mengajarkannya kepada Tang, Tang mengajarkan kepada Pangeran Zhou, Pangeran Zhou mengajarkan kepada Konfusius, Konfusius mengajarkannya kepada Mensius, ketika Mensius meninggal, Tao itu tidak lagi diajarkan dengan penuh lagi"

Hal ini ditandai dengan adanya dewa Kuang Kong pada kepercayaan Buddha Mahayana yang diangkat menjadi Boddhisatwa.

Mereka tak tahu lagi mengenai pandangan monotheisme, sosok yang menciptakan seluruh alam semesta. Walaupun pernah percaya adanya Tuhan yang satu seperti banyak kebudayaan lainnya, namun mereka tidak pernah lagi mengenalnya secara dekat.

Jadi, Mensius itu = "Paulus"nya Tiongkok ketawa guling ketawa guling ketawa guling ketawa guling ketawa guling

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Re: Ajaran Taoisme sudah rusak

Post by BiasaSaja on Sat Dec 08, 2012 5:15 pm

gue ikut nonton dulu deh (walau udah tau makna ajaran tao sih).

Btw, NUWA itu Perempuan loh usil
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Re: Ajaran Taoisme sudah rusak

Post by Penyaran on Sun May 12, 2013 3:43 pm

Tian is one of the oldest Chinese terms for the cosmos and a key concept in Chinese mythology, philosophy, and religion. During the Shang Dynasty (17th–11th centuries BCE) the Chinese called god Shangdi (上帝 "lord on high") or Di ("lord"), and during the Zhou Dynasty (11th–3rd centuries BCE) Tian "heaven; god" became synonymous with Shangdi .

In the Chinese philosophical systems of Taoism and Confucianism, Tian is often translated as " Heaven" and is mentioned in relationship to its complementary aspect of Di (地), which is most often translated as " Earth". These two aspects of Daoist cosmology are representative of the dualistic nature of Daoism. They are thought to maintain the two poles of the Three Realms of reality, with the middle realm occupied by Humanity (人 Ren ).

Characters

Tian 's modern Chinese character 天 combines da 大 "great; large" and yi 一 "one", but some of the original characters in Shang oracle bone script and Zhou bronzeware script anthropomorphically portray a large head on a great person (see the Richard Sears hyperlink below). The oracle and bronze ideograms for da 大 depict a stick figure person with arms stretched out denoting "great; large". The oracle and bronze characters for tian 天 emphasize the cranium of this "great (person)", either with a square head (oracle), round or disk-shaped head (bronze), or head marked with one or two lines (oracle and bronze). Since Shang scribes cut oracle inscriptions on bone or shell, their characters often have straight lines where later bronze inscriptions have curved lines. Schuessler (2007:495) notes the bronze graphs for tian showing a person with a round head resemble those for ding 丁 "4th Celestial stem", and suggests "The anthropomorphic graph may or may not indicate that the original meaning was 'deity', rather than 'sky'."

Besides the usual 天, tian "heaven" has several graphic variants like 兲 (written with 王 "king" and 八 "8") and the Daoist coinage 靝 (with 青 "blue" and 氣 " qi", i.e., "blue sky").

The simplified chinese version is slightly different from the traditional chinese version (天). The relative lengths of the two horizontal bars are different in the two cases.

Origins

The sinologist Herrlee Creel, who wrote a comprehensive study on "The Origin of the Deity T'ien" (1970:493-506), gives this overview.

For three thousand years it has been believed that from time immemorial all Chinese revered T'ien 天, "Heaven," as the highest deity, and that this same deity was also known as Ti 帝 or Shang Ti 上帝. But the new materials that have become available in the present century, and especially the Shang inscriptions, make it evident that this was not the case. It appears rather that T'ien is not named at all in the Shang inscriptions, which instead refer with great frequency to Ti or Shang Ti. T'ien appears only with the Chou, and was apparently a Chou deity. After the conquest the Chou considered T'ien to be identical with the Shang deity Ti (or Shang Ti), much as the Romans identified the Greek Zeus with their Jupiter. (1970:493)

Creel refers to the historical shift in ancient Chinese names for "god"; from Shang oracles that frequently used di and shangdi and rarely used tian to Zhou bronzes and texts that used tian more frequently than its synonym shangdi .

First, Creel analyzes all the tian and di occurrences meaning "god; gods" in Western Zhou era Chinese classic texts and bronze inscriptions. The Yi Jing "Classic of Changes" has 2 tian and 1 di ; the Shi Jing "Classic of Poetry" has 140 tian and 43 di or shangdi ; and the authentic portions of the Shu Jing "Classic of Documents" have 116 tian and 25 di or shangdi . His corpus of authenticated Western Zhou bronzes (1970:464–75) mention tian 91 times and di or shangdi only 4 times. Second, Creel contrasts the disparity between 175 occurrences of di or shangdi on Shang era oracle inscriptions with "at least" 26 occurrences of tian . Upon examining these 26 oracle scripts that scholars (like Guo Moruo) have identified as tian 天 "heaven; god" (1970:494–5), he rules out 8 cases in fragments where the contextual meaning is unclear. Of the remaining 18, Creel interprets 11 cases as graphic variants for da "great; large; big" (e.g., tian i shang 天邑商 for da i shang 大邑商 "great settlement Shang"), 3 as a place name, and 4 cases of oracles recording sacrifices yu tian 于天 "to/at Tian" (which could mean "to Heaven/God" or "at a place called Tian".

The Shu Jing chapter " Tang Shi " (湯誓 "Tang's Speech") illustrates how early Zhou texts used tian "heaven; god" in contexts with shangdi "god". According to tradition, Tang of Shang assembled his subjects to overthrow King Jie of Xia, the infamous last ruler of the Xia Dynasty, but they were reluctant to attack.

Having established that Tian was not a deity of the Shang people, Creel (1970:501-6) proposes a hypothesis for how it originated. Both the Shang and Zhou peoples pictographically represented da 大 as "a large or great man". The Zhou subsequently added a head on him to denote tian 天 meaning "king, kings" (cf. wang 王 "king; ruler", which had oracle graphs picturing a line under a "great person" and bronze graphs that added the top line). From "kings", tian was semantically extended to mean "dead kings; ancestral kings", who controlled "fate; providence", and ultimately a single omnipotent deity Tian "Heaven". In addition, tian named both "the heavens" (where ancestral kings and gods supposedly lived) and the visible "sky".

Meanings

The semantics of tian developed diachronically. The Hanyu dazidian, an historical dictionary of Chinese characters, lists 17 meanings of tian 天, translated below.

Human forehead; head, cranium. 人的額部; 腦袋.
Anciently, to tattoo/brand the forehead as a kind of punishment. 古代一種在額頭上刺字的刑罰.
The heavens, the sky, the firmament. 天空.
Celestial bodies; celestial phenomena, meteorological phenomena. 天體; 天象.
Nature, natural. A general reference to objective inevitability beyond human will. 自然. 泛指不以人意志為轉移的客觀必然性.
Natural, innate; instinctive, inborn. 自然的; 天性的.
Natural character/quality of a person or thing; natural instinct, inborn nature, disposition. 人或物的自然形質; 天性.
A reference to a particular sky/space. 特指某一空間.
Season; seasons. Like: winter; the three hot 10-day periods [following the summer solstice]. 時令; 季節. 如: 冬天; 三伏天.
Weather; climate. 天氣; 氣候.
Day, time of one day and night, or especially the time from sunrise to sunset. Like: today; yesterday; busy all day; go fishing for three days and dry the nets for two [a xiehouyu simile for "unable to finish anything"]. 一晝夜的時間, 或專指日出到日落的時間. 如: 今天; 昨天; 忙了一天; 三天打魚, 兩天曬網.
God, heaven, celestial spirit, of the natural world. 天神, 上帝, 自然界的主宰者.
Heaven, heavenly, a superstitious person's reference to the gods, Buddhas, or immortals; or to the worlds where they live. Like: go to heaven ["die"]; heavenly troops and heavenly generals ["invincible army"]; heavenly goddesses scatter blossoms [a Vimalakirti Sutra reference to "Buddha's arrival"]. 迷信的人指神佛仙人或他們生活的那個世界. 如: 歸天; 天兵天將; 天女散花.
Anciently, the king, monarch, sovereign; also referring to elders in human relationships. 古代指君王; 也指人倫中的尊者.
Object upon which one depends or relies. 所依存或依靠的對象.
Dialect. A measure of land [ shang , about 15 acres]. 方言. 垧.
A family name, surname. 姓.

The Chinese philosopher Feng Youlan differentiates five different meanings of tian in early Chinese writings:

(1) A material or physical T'ien or sky, that is, the T'ien often spoken of in apposition to earth, as in the common phrase which refers to the physical universe as 'Heaven and Earth' ( T'ien Ti 天地).
(2) A ruling or presiding T'ien , that is, one such as is meant in the phrase, 'Imperial Heaven Supreme Emperor' ( Huang T'ien Shang Ti ), in which anthropomorphic T'ien and Ti are signified.
(3) A fatalistic T'ien , equivalent to the concept of Fate ( ming 命), a term applied to all those events in human life over which man himself has no control. This is the T'ien Mencius refers to when he says: "As to the accomplishment of a great deed, that is with T'ien " ([ Mencius], Ib, 14).
(4) A naturalistic T'ien , that is, one equivalent to the English word Nature. This is the sort of T'ien described in the 'Discussion on T'ien ' in the [ Hsün Tzǔ] (ch. 17).
(5) An ethical T'ien , that is, one having a moral principle and which is the highest primordial principle of the universe. This is the sort of T'ien which the [ Chung Yung] (Doctrine of the Mean) refers to in its opening sentence when it says: "What T'ien confers (on man) is called his nature." (1952:31)

The Oxford English Dictionary enters the English loanword t'ien (also tayn , tyen , tien , and tiān ) "Chinese thought: Heaven; the Deity." The earliest recorded usages for these spelling variants are: 1613 Tayn , 1710 Tien , 1747 Tyen , and 1878 T'ien .

Pronunciations

The modern Standard Mandarin pronunciation of 天 "sky, heaven; heavenly deity, god" is tiān in level first tone. The character is read as Standard Cantonese tin1 ; Taiwanese thiN1 or thian1 ; Vietnamese yêu or thiên ; Korean cheon or ch'ŏn (천); and Japanese ten in On'yomi (borrowed Chinese reading) and ame or sora in Kun'yomi (native Japanese reading).

Tiān 天 reconstructions in Middle Chinese (ca. 6th–10th centuries CE) include t'ien ( Bernhard Karlgren), t'iɛn (Zhou Fagao), tʰɛn > tʰian (Edwin G. Pulleyblank), and then (William H. Baxter). Reconstructions in Old Chinese (ca. 6th–3rd centuries BCE) include * t'ien (Karlgren), * t'en (Zhou), * hlin (Baxter), and * thîn (Schuessler).

Etymologies

For the etymology of tian , Schuessler (2007:495) says, "Because the deity Tiān came into prominence with the Zhou dynasty (a western state), a Central Asian origin has been suggested." He cites the Mongolian word tengri "sky, heaven, heavenly deity" or the Tibeto-Burman words Adi taleŋ and Lepcha tǎ-lyaŋ "sky". Schuessler (2007:211) also suggests a likely connection between Chinese tiān 天, diān 巔 "summit, mountaintop", and diān 顛 "summit, top of the head, forehead", which have cognates such as Naga tiŋ "sky".

Compounds

Tian is the component in hundreds of Chinese compounds. Some significant ones include:

- tianming (天命 " Mandate of Heaven") "divine mandate, God's will; fate, destiny; one's lifespan"
- tianzi (天子 " Son of Heaven"), an honorific designation for the "Emperor; Chinese sovereign" ( Tianzi accounts for 28 of the 140 tian occurrences in the Shi Jing above.)
- tianxia (天下, lit. " all under heaven") "the world, earth; China"
- tiandi (天地, lit "heaven and earth") "the world; the universe"

References

- Chang, Ruth H. 2000. "Understanding Di and Tian : Deity and Heaven From Shang to Tang." Sino-Platonic Papers 108:1–54.
- Creel, Herrlee G., 1970. The Origins of Statecraft in China . The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-12043-0
- Fung Yu-Lan. 1952. A History of Chinese Philosophy, Vol. I. The Period of the Philosophers , tr. Derk Bodde. Princeton University Press.
- Legge, James. 1865. The Chinese Classics, Vol. III, The Shoo King . Oxford University Press.
- Schuessler, Axel. 2007. ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese . University of Hawaii Press.

http://www.reference.com/browse/tian

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Re: Ajaran Taoisme sudah rusak

Post by Emiliana on Fri May 31, 2013 5:14 pm


Hal ini ditandai dengan adanya dewa Kuang Kong pada kepercayaan Buddha Mahayana yang diangkat menjadi Boddhisatwa.

Mereka tak tahu lagi mengenai pandangan monotheisme, sosok yang menciptakan seluruh alam semesta. Walaupun pernah percaya adanya Tuhan yang satu seperti banyak kebudayaan lainnya, namun mereka tidak pernah lagi mengenalnya secara dekat.

Guan Di atau di Indonesia biasa dikenal sgb Dewa Kwan Tek, itu adalah pelindung dhamma di aliran Buddha Tionghoa, dan bukan Boddhisatva. Bagaimana ceritanya, singkat saja ajaran Buddha itu lembut dan menyerap kebudayaan masyarakat setempat, dengan demikian tokoh yg sgt dihormati spt Guan Di di China bukan ditolak malah diberikan tempat khusus, dan ini juga ada kisah latar belakangnya tentu...

Legenda Nuwa adalah mitologi kuno China, bs ga bedain antara legenda/mitos dgn Keyakinan?

Dan apakah Anda yakin Confucius mempromosikan monotheisme? Setahu saya, ajaran Kong Hu Cu malah fokus pada moralitas saja, dan hebatnya ini msh bertahan sampai skrg dan mengakar kuat di sanubari orang tionghoa di manapun. Ajaran Kong Hu Cu denger2 skrg malah mau dibangkitkan lg di RRC yg menganut komunisme...
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Re: Ajaran Taoisme sudah rusak

Post by Penyaran on Tue Jun 11, 2013 2:02 pm

heran nih sama si Emiliana, Tao dibela, Konghucu dibela, Hindu dibela, bahkan Kristen dibela. herannya ketika melihat kasus PKS yg menyerang Islam dgn naifnya ngelesnya minta ampun. udah kek dedengkotnye Faith Freedom aje yg sok2an bela agama laen, padahal sebenernya pd saling perang ideologi dalam nyerang islam kek kasus MLC. ehmm

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Re: Ajaran Taoisme sudah rusak

Post by Emiliana on Wed Jun 12, 2013 3:54 pm

Yang baik, psti sy bela...bahkan dengan sy diam di thread2 bertema Islam, seharusnya Anda memandang ini sbg itikad baik sy terhadap Islam. Silakan buka kembali (krn lagi2 engkau jagonya dlm buka2 luka lama) di thread yg engkau asumsikan membela Kristen, apakah komentar saya itu menistakan Islam?
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Re: Ajaran Taoisme sudah rusak

Post by Penyaran on Wed Jun 12, 2013 8:06 pm

@Emiliana wrote:Yang baik, psti sy bela...bahkan dengan sy diam di thread2 bertema Islam, seharusnya Anda memandang ini sbg itikad baik sy terhadap Islam. Silakan buka kembali (krn lagi2 engkau jagonya dlm buka2 luka lama) di thread yg engkau asumsikan membela Kristen, apakah komentar saya itu menistakan Islam?


kau pikir yg seperti ini bukannya menistakan Islam heh

http://www.laskarislam.com/t5061-buddhist-hujati-kristen-dijawab-islam

Logika orang memindahkan barang tidak bisa dipakai untuk menjawab terjadinya perilaku, arus kesadaran manusia. Seseorang bisa saja mengangkat suatu benda ke tempat B, tanpa harus menunggu org lain mengangkat ke tempat A terlebih dahulu. Kalaulah ia harus menunggu orang lain mengangkat ke tempat A, maka ada dua kemungkinan: orang I itu malas, atau memang hrs demikian prosedurnya. Jadi ada 2 kemungkinan.

Sedang untuk logika terbentuknya kesadaran dimulai dari: kontak dengan indra-->kesadaran indra-->pencerapan objek-->timbul rasa suka, netral, atau benci....kira-kira rantainya seperti itu, tidak bisa langsung dari kontak terus tiba-tiba muncul perasaan suka, netral, atau tidak suka. Dengan maksud, bukannya si "perasaan" itu malas harus nunggu "kontak", "kesadaran", "pencerapan" bekerja dulu...melainkan begitulah keadaannya...LAIN DENGAN logika org ngangkat barang... 


http://www.laskarislam.com/t6222-obrolan-abu-hanan-dan-emiliana-tentang-sidharta-gautama-available-untuk-semua-member

Thread #4: Judul " Suap Daging, Luthfi Hasan Dijanjikan Rp 40 Miliar" isinya berita/fakta, kata org karena nila setitik rusak susu sebelanga. Siapa suruh pakai lambang2 agama bikin parpol, bikin parpol agamis di satu sisi bs oportunis, di sisi lain amanahnya besar. Sy pernah denger org muslim gerah sendiri ama parpol2 kyk gini. Yang dipergunjingkan dalam thread adlh PARTAI-nya...baca sendri tuh baik2. It's a fact citranya PKS ud bobrok, dan PKS adalah partai, siapa aja tau itu!

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Re: Ajaran Taoisme sudah rusak

Post by Emiliana on Fri Jun 14, 2013 1:06 pm

Di mananya yg menistakan? Yg pertama sy cuma berbagi pandangan thd kemustahilan daor dlm hukum alam semesta...sy menangkap daor ini mirip dgn ajaran Buddha (sy udah lupa ama isi thread tsb), makanya sy jelasin kemustahilan daor ga bs dipakai dgn logika org ngangkat barang...

Di link yg ke-2...mana yg menunjukkan sy menistakan ajaran Islam? Silakan bw temen2 Islam menganalisis perkataan sy, bahkan sekutu2mu...cobalah datang, lihat, dan buktikan bahwa aku menistakan Islam...
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Re: Ajaran Taoisme sudah rusak

Post by Penyaran on Mon Jun 17, 2013 10:36 pm

bahkan dirimu sendiri gak bisa ngomongin mana ke-tidak-menyerang-Islam-nya dan malah sok2an nyuruh org lain nunjukin & org2 itu gak dateng. sementara saya sendiri berhasil nunjukin. jadi, 1-0 utk gw piss

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Re: Ajaran Taoisme sudah rusak

Post by dharma_senapati on Thu Sep 01, 2016 2:08 pm

@BiasaSaja wrote:
gue ikut nonton dulu deh (walau udah tau makna ajaran tao sih).

Btw, NUWA itu Perempuan loh usil

leh tw dah sampai mana pemahaman kamu ttg taoisme, sharing donx
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