FORUM LASKAR ISLAM
welcome
Saat ini anda mengakses forum Laskar Islam sebagai tamu dimana anda tidak mempunyai akses penuh turut berdiskusi yang hanya diperuntukkan bagi member LI. Silahkan REGISTER dan langsung LOG IN untuk dapat mengakses forum ini sepenuhnya sebagai member.


@laskarislamcom

Terima Kasih
Salam Admin LI

Islam dan Kreativitas

Halaman 2 dari 4 Previous  1, 2, 3, 4  Next

Topik sebelumnya Topik selanjutnya Go down

Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by Andi Cactusa on Thu Jan 10, 2013 3:36 pm

First topic message reminder :

Islam dan Kreativitas

...Pada hari Minggu, 2 Desember 2012, bung Ichreza membuka thread berjudul “teladan bisnis Rasulullah.” Isinya berupa artikel karangan Dr Muhammad Safi’i Antonio. Dalam artikel itu dikisahkan sepak-terjang ringkas Muhammad dalam dunia bisnis. Lihat: http://www.laskarislam.com/t4570-teladan-bisnis-rasulullah yang sudah digembok.
...Dari dialog dengan bung Ichreza, ada yang sangat menarik perhatian saya untuk diulas lebih lanjut. Berikut ini dialog saya dengan bung Ichreza. Saya kutip yang perlu saja sebagai pengantar ke masalah utama.

@Andi Cactusa wrote:Bung Ichreza,

...Untuk kedua kalinya saya ingin bertanya: Mengapa anda seringkali memuat copasan tanpa menyertakan url-nya?
...Untuk moderator: Apakah bung Ichreza anggota yang sangat khusus sehingga diperbolehkan terus-menerus melanggar peraturan LI ini?
...Bila bung Ichreza tidak mencantumkan sumbernya, maka isi tulisan sepenuhnya menjadi tanggung-jawab anda. Artinya atau implementasinya, semua tanggapan terhadap postingan anda harus anda respons atau jawab.
ichreza wrote:PERTAMA, saya tidak mengcopas. tapi artikel ini saya dapat dari isi komputer saya sendiri, bukan hasil copas dari internet.
@Andi Cactusa wrote:...Lagi-lagi anda membuat saya terpana. Rupanya anda manusia pertama di dunia ini yang memiliki komputer yang tanpa bantuan manusia dapat membaca buku, majalah, koran, mengakses internet dan kemudian menyimpannya di hard-disk. Komputer anda mencantumkan nama penulisnya, Muhammad Safi’i Antonio, tetapi lupa mencantumkan sumbernya. Begitu kah?
ichreza wrote:KEDUA, yang dilarang di LI adalah menghadirkan link tanpa artikel. kalau artikel tanpa link itu boleh.
@Andi Cactusa wrote:...Peraturan yang saya kutip berikut kiranya tidak bermakna seperti yang anda maksud.
Pelampiran Sumber Referensi (link).

Setiap Referensi (bukan bersumber pribadi), WAJIB menyertakan "Link Sumber"-nya (bila berasal dari web Netral atau Web Islam) dan menyerta isi/Copy-Paste/Garis Besar/Kesimpulan.
http://www.laskarislam.com/t959-peraturan-dan-panduan-umum

...Atau, tolong berikan kalau ada peraturan lain di LI ini yang sejalan dengan pernyataan anda, siapa tahu belum saya lihat.
ichreza wrote:1. sebagian besar artikel di LI adalah materi yg saya save di komputer saya sebagai database. url link sumber tidak bisa muncul ketika anda menyimpan sebuah halaman. seingat saya ini adalah artikel dari forum swaramuslim.net, salah satu webforum kristologi yang pertama dan terbesar di Indonesia daam kurun waktu 2003-2008. forum swaramuslim adalah salah satu inspirator LI. di mana web tersebut sudah hilang, mungkin karena dihack oleh dedengkot FFI yang tidak suka dengan kehadiran forum tersebut.
@Andi Cactusa wrote:Bung Ichreza,
...Saya tidak bermaksud menjatuhkan atau menyakiti perasaan anda. Hanya kebetulan anda salah satu yang paling mencolok memuat tulisan yang bukan karangan anda sendiri, tanpa menyebutkan sumbernya. Lalu saya jadikan kasus sebagai bahan pemikiran dan pembelajaran, agar mutu LI ini semakin meningkat, semakin menarik dan semakin bonafid atau kredibel.
...Walau pun tulisan itu sudah anda simpan di komputer anda, bukan berarti tulisan itu menjadi milik anda. Copyright tulisan itu tetap di tangan bung Antonio atau media yang pertama memublikasikannya. Saya yakin anda sering membaca peringatan, “Dilarang mengutip sebagian atau seluruh isi tulisan ini tanpa menyebutkan sumbernya.”
...Di penutup artikel itu masih anda cantumkan nama Muhammad Safi’i Antonio. Jelas bahwa pemilik hak cipta artikel itu adalah bung Antonio, bukan anda. Andaikata kita berada di negara yang sangat ketat menerapkan Undang-undang Hak Cipta, seperti di Eropa atau USA, anda bisa dituntut dan dimasukkan ke penjara.
...Saya sarankan, bila anda memuat suatu artikel yang bukan karangan anda sendiri, tetapi kutipan, usahakan mencari dan mencantumkan sumbernya. Tulisan bung Antonio itu misalnya, saya lihat banyak di berbagai situs. Anda perlu menutup pintu bagi prasangka bahwa tulisan atau artikel bersangkutan telah anda ubah.
...Bung Abu Hanan beberapa waktu yang lalu di thread saya, “Menilik Gaya Kepemimpinan Muhammad,” mengutip terjemahan uraian pakar (Lewin cs.) dalam bahasa Indonesia, tanpa menyebutkan sumbernya. Saya meminta dia memberikan sumbernya, karena uraian tersebut berbeda dengan yang saya baca dalam bahasa Inggris. Hal seperti itu bisa menimbulkan berbagai prasangka di pikiran saya, yang seharusnya tidak perlu terjadi.
ichreza wrote:2. anda menyalahtafsirkan peraturan tersebut. yg dimaksud harus melampirkan link adalah jika bukan bersumber dari data pribadi. sedangkan apa yg di database komputer saya adalah data pribadi.

@Andi Cactusa wrote:...Kiranya uraian saya di atas juga sekaligus menanggapi point ke-2 ini. Tulisan atau artikel itu tetap bukan milik anda dan bukan bersumber dari data pribadi anda. Bila anda mengkleim itu sebagai milik anda, maka anda sudah melakukan perbuatan mencuri.
ichreza wrote:ok. bung andi.....F.Noya....sepertinya anda seorang akademisi...

anda begitu kritis sekali dengan masalah keilmiahan. saya menghargai pendapat anda. niat saya di sini hanya menyiarkan agama islam. saya mengerti, di dunia akademis memang wajib mencantumkan sumber rujukan secara lengkap. akan tetapi dalam dunia keislaman, tidak ada hak cipta atau hak copyright. apa yang ditulis dan diproduksi dalam dunia islam adalah milik umat islam. apa yang disumbangkan Dr Syafii Antonio kepada umat adalah untuk umat islam dan sepenuhnya menjadi milik umat islam. dalam hukum islam tidak ada copyright, karena copyright hanya milik Allah.
...Khusus bagi rekan-rekan netter muslim, tolong perhatikan kalimat yang dibold dan berwarna biru. Apakah pernyataan atau statement itu benar dan anda amini? Akan lebih solid lagi bila anda dukung dengan ayat-ayat dari AQ atau hadits. Terima kasih.


Terakhir diubah oleh Andi Cactusa tanggal Thu Jan 10, 2013 4:07 pm, total 1 kali diubah
avatar
Andi Cactusa
LETNAN DUA
LETNAN DUA

Male
Posts : 784
Kepercayaan : Protestan
Location : Jakarta
Join date : 08.10.12
Reputation : 30

Kembali Ke Atas Go down


Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by Andi Cactusa on Tue Jan 15, 2013 5:21 pm

@Andi Cactusa wrote: tetapi tolong sebutkan satu saja innovasi muslim yang sangat berarti bagi kemajuan dunia ini dalam 500 tahun terakhir.
@abu hanan wrote:kemajuan dunia 500 tahun terakhir bukanlah kemajuan yang tiba2 ada..tentu anda paham hal ini..jika sebut nama ada abdussalam,peraih nobel bidang fisika (1979).

jika sayah bertanya pada anda,apa kemajuan barat kristen selama dekade 800-1600?darimana mereka mempelajarinyah?
anda tentu abaikan pertanyaan sayah.
...Berikut ini adalah sepuluh inventors yang terbesar dalam sejarah, menurut Jeff Danelek. (Jeff Danelek adalah penulis dari Denver, Colorado, yang menulis banyak subjek yang berhubungan dengan sejarah, politik, paranormal, spiritual dan agama. Untuk melihat lebih banyak tulisannya, kunjungi situsnya: www.ourcuriousworld.com.)

Top 10 Greatest Inventors in History

10. Leonardo Da Vinci
9. Edwin Land
8. Benjamin Franklin
7. Hero of Alexandria
6. Jerome “Jerry” Hal Lemelson
5. George Westinghouse
4. Alexander Graham Bell
3. Thomas Edison
2. Nikola Tesla
1. Archimedes of Syracuse


...Tidak satu pun dari 10 inventors tersebut yang diilhami muslim/Islam, meneruskan penemuan muslim atau merupakan murid dari guru beragama Islam.
Untuk mengetahui lebih jelas mengenai masing-masing inventors tersebut, silahkan baca di: http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-greatest-inventors-in-history.php
...Bila anda kurang puas dengan daftar di atas, silahkan google dengan kata kunci “inventors” atau “inventions”. Siapa tahu ada atau banyak nama-nama muslim, seperti Abdussalam, yang bisa anda temukan.
@abu hanan wrote:http://fim.event.ipb.ac.id/
Juara 3: Endah Rizki Qaromah, Zulaikha Rachmi Imamah, Kun Rasyida – Pemanfaatan Limbah Kulit Pisang Untuk Pengganti Gelatin Dalam Pangan dan Obat Sebagai Wujud Aplikasi Surat An Nahl Ayat 11
...Saya pun akan sangat senang dan bangga bila anak bangsa ini, tidak perduli apa agamanya, tercatat sebagai inventors kelas dunia.
@abu hanan wrote:generasi muda muslim mulai bergerak mengejar ketinggalan dan tugas anda adalah menghentikan mereka,bukan begitu?
...Mayoritas otak dan nurani muslim memang rusak parah seperti anda. Mengira semua orang menuruti nabi Muhammadnya, yang melarang mencintai orang di luar teman seukuwahnya. Tugas saya adalah menghapus sikap, pemikiran dan kecurigaan seperti di benak anda yang brengsek itu, agar Indonesia bisa maju dengan pesat.
avatar
Andi Cactusa
LETNAN DUA
LETNAN DUA

Male
Posts : 784
Kepercayaan : Protestan
Location : Jakarta
Join date : 08.10.12
Reputation : 30

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by abu hanan on Tue Jan 15, 2013 5:44 pm

tetapi tolong sebutkan satu saja innovasi muslim yang sangat berarti bagi kemajuan dunia ini dalam 500 tahun terakhir.
lha terus kenafa archimedes anda cantumkan di trit ini?

Tidak satu pun dari 10 inventors tersebut yang diilhami muslim/Islam, meneruskan penemuan muslim atau merupakan murid dari guru beragama Islam.
owh bugituh...
Abdurrahman al-Khazini hidup pada abad ke-12 M..
“Teori keseimbangan hidrostatis yang dicetuskannya telah mendorong penciptaan peralatan ilmiah. al-Khazini adalah salah seorang saintis terbesar sepanjang masa,” ungkap Robert E Hall (1973) dalam tulisannya berjudul ”al-Khazini” yang dimuat dalam A Dictionary of Scientific Biography Volume VII.
selebihnya bisa dibaca di http://tekim.undip.ac.id/staf/istadi/2009/04/al-khazini-saintis-muslim-perintis-ilmu-gravitasi/

anda tau darimana kalow 10 atow sebagian orang di top ten gak diilhami/terinspirasi ilmuwan muslim era sebelumnyah?

..Mayoritas otak dan nurani muslim memang rusak parah seperti benak anda. Mengira semua orang menuruti nabi Muhammadnya, yang melarang mencintai orang di luar teman seukuwahnya
kalow ada muslim yg gak mau menuruti nabi muhammad yah berarti bukan muslim..

Tugas saya adalah menghapus sikap, pemikiran dan kecurigaan seperti di benak anda yang brengsek itu, agar Indonesia bisa maju dengan pesat.
yg sayah tebalin yah trims..sayah anggap sebagai pujian..
dan menjadi tugas sayah untuk menjadikan endonesah lebih cerdas dari sekarang.


untuk orang yang memaafkan walaupun ia mampu membalas
maka kembalilah kepada Tuhanmu dengan hati yang luas
avatar
abu hanan
GLOBAL MODERATOR
GLOBAL MODERATOR

Male
Age : 83
Posts : 7999
Kepercayaan : Islam
Location : soerabaia
Join date : 06.10.11
Reputation : 219

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by Andi Cactusa on Tue Jan 15, 2013 9:15 pm

@abu hanan wrote:lha terus kenafa archimedes anda cantumkan di trit ini?
...Emangnya kenapa? Baca saja sumbernya itu. Di situ diberikan alasan-alasannya.
@abu hanan wrote:owh bugituh...
"Abdurrahman al-Khazini hidup pada abad ke-12 M..
“Teori keseimbangan hidrostatis yang dicetuskannya telah mendorong penciptaan peralatan ilmiah. al-Khazini adalah salah seorang saintis terbesar sepanjang masa,” ungkap Robert E Hall (1973) dalam tulisannya berjudul ”al-Khazini” yang dimuat dalam A Dictionary of Scientific Biography Volume VII...."
selebihnya bisa dibaca di http://tekim.undip.ac.id/staf/istadi/2009/04/al-khazini-saintis-muslim-perintis-ilmu-gravitasi/
...Rupanya anda tidak bisa membedakan scientist dengan inventors. Yang kita bicarakan adalah mengenai inovasi, kok anda melantur menonjolkan scientist! Apa saja inovasi yang dihasilkan oleh al-Khazini?
@abu hanan wrote:anda tau darimana kalow 10 atow sebagian orang di top ten gak diilhami/terinspirasi ilmuwan muslim era sebelumnyah?
...Baca saja riwayat hidup masing-masing inovator itu, apakah ada disebutkan bersentuhan, diilhami oleh penemuan orang bernama berbau Islam.
...Seharusnya justru anda yang harus membuktikan bahwa inovasi para inventor itu bertautan dengan masa kejayaan Islam yang kalian banggakan itu, karena anda yang lebih dahulu mengkleim begitu.
@Andi Cactusa wrote:...Mayoritas otak dan nurani muslim memang rusak parah seperti benak anda. Mengira semua orang menuruti nabi Muhammadnya, yang melarang mencintai orang di luar teman seukuwahnya
@abu hanan wrote:kalow ada muslim yg gak mau menuruti nabi muhammad yah berarti bukan muslim..
...Terima kasih atas pengakuan terus-terang dan jujur anda, dengan asumsi saya tidak salah menangkap pesan yang anda sampaikan. Kalau ada scientist atau inovator muda kita yang bersinar tetapi non-muslim, akan anda hambat!
@Andi Cactusa wrote:Tugas saya adalah menghapus sikap, pemikiran dan kecurigaan seperti di benak anda yang brengsek itu, agar Indonesia bisa maju dengan pesat.
@abu hanan wrote:yg sayah tebalin yah trims..sayah anggap sebagai pujian..
dan menjadi tugas sayah untuk menjadikan endonesah lebih cerdas dari sekarang.
...Bagaimanan manusia Indonesia bisa menjadi lebih cerdas, kalau sikap dan perilaku muslimnya seperti anda? Menghambat anak-anak cemerlang bila non-muslim.
avatar
Andi Cactusa
LETNAN DUA
LETNAN DUA

Male
Posts : 784
Kepercayaan : Protestan
Location : Jakarta
Join date : 08.10.12
Reputation : 30

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by suara hati on Wed Jan 16, 2013 8:49 am


Mayoritas otak dan nurani muslim memang rusak parah seperti anda. Mengira semua orang menuruti nabi Muhammadnya, yang melarang mencintai orang di luar teman seukuwahnya. Tugas saya adalah menghapus sikap, pemikiran dan kecurigaan seperti di benak anda yang brengsek itu, agar Indonesia bisa maju dengan pesat.
Ini lah gaya anti Islam jika sudah mulai nyungsep...mulai mengeluarkan kata kata yang tak ada hubungan dengan judul thread...mencoba memukul konsentrasi lawan dengan cara kotor..otak kamu sendiri yang jeblog bro.

suara hati
SERSAN MAYOR
SERSAN MAYOR

Male
Posts : 288
Kepercayaan : Islam
Location : Medan
Join date : 29.11.12
Reputation : 5

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by Andi Cactusa on Wed Jan 16, 2013 2:54 pm

@Bung Abu Hanan, Suara Hati dan muslim yang membanggakan masa lalu Islam,

...Agar lebih luas cakupan inovasi yang sangat berarti dan berpengaruh bagi dunia ini, silahkan lihat situs Great Inventions -- Great Inventors, WHAT WERE THE GREATEST INVENTIONS OF ALL TIME? Here is the Encyclopædia Britannica's list for--The Greatest Inventions of All Times (http://www.edinformatics.com/inventions_inventors/)
...Lihat dan periksa apakah ada di situ tercantum nama yang berbau muslim, perusahaan yang bernama Islami atau berasal dari negara muslim.
...Memang ada 9 inovasi dari Timur Tengah, yakni alphabet, beer, candle, glass, lock and key, nail construction, vending machine, wheel, wine serta coins (dari Turki), tetapi semuanya sebelum era Islam. Sedang gunpowder yang ditemukan di abad-10 belum jelas lebih dahulu ditemukan di China atau di Arabia.
...Dari data itu terlihat bahwa dahulu lumayan banyak inovasi dari Timur Tengah, tetapi menjadi tandus atau nol besar setelah era Islam.
...Masih kah anda akan terus berkoar-koar, bermasturbasi atau beronani akan kehebatan masa gemilang Islam, yang menjajah hingga ke Spanyol itu?
avatar
Andi Cactusa
LETNAN DUA
LETNAN DUA

Male
Posts : 784
Kepercayaan : Protestan
Location : Jakarta
Join date : 08.10.12
Reputation : 30

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by suara hati on Wed Jan 16, 2013 4:04 pm

@Andi Cactusa wrote:
...Agar lebih luas cakupan inovasi yang sangat berarti dan berpengaruh bagi dunia ini, silahkan lihat situs Great Inventions -- Great Inventors, WHAT WERE THE GREATEST INVENTIONS OF ALL TIME? Here is the Encyclopædia Britannica's list for--The Greatest Inventions of All Times (http://www.edinformatics.com/inventions_inventors/)
...Lihat dan periksa apakah ada di situ tercantum nama yang berbau muslim, perusahaan yang bernama Islami atau berasal dari negara muslim.
Invention tidaklah berarti 'nemu barang di jalan'. Dia melibatkan proses belajar. Dan guru Eropa Kristen dalam belajar ini adalah muslim. Dapat dilihat dari link yang diberikan bung Andi Cactusa bahwa tahun invention tersebut sebagian besar berkisar antara abad 17-abad 18. Ini menunjukkan bahwa setelah 1700 tahun kedatangan Yesus...baru terjadi invention.Sementara dalam rentang 'cuma' kira kira 300 tahun, para muslim sudah mengajari Kristen.Jauhnya jarak kedatangan Yesus dengan invention menunjukkan ada yang salah dalam pandangan Kristen tentang ilmu...buktinya pendapat Galileo dicekik oleh gereja.

suara hati
SERSAN MAYOR
SERSAN MAYOR

Male
Posts : 288
Kepercayaan : Islam
Location : Medan
Join date : 29.11.12
Reputation : 5

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by abu hanan on Wed Jan 16, 2013 4:07 pm

dari link anda...sayah ambil nama ini deh ; Wilbur & Orville Wright,tentulah mereka berdua menggunakan angka 0 utk berhitung apapun tentang aerodinamika...dan angka 0 pula dimanfaatkan untuk battery, electric storage oleh Alessandro Volta...

Al Jazari (1136-1206) mengembangkan prinsip hidrolik untuk menggerakkan mesin yang kemudian hari dikenal sebagai mesin robot.

http://www.tadungkung.com/2012/07/penemuan-ilmuwan-islam-yang.html

jika muslim sekarang berada di belakang atow bahkan sempat mundur ke belakang yah salah duanyah karena penjajahan.500 taun dari 2012...
fakta sejarah ;Malaka yang berdiri pada awal abad ke-15 M di Semenanjung Malaya yang strategis dan merupakan kerajaan Islam kedua di Asia Tenggara setelah Samudera Pasai, di taklukkan Portugis tahun 1511 M..
dan ketika portugis menguasai malaka,apa sumbangsih portugis pada penduduk setempat?menjadikan pribumi muslim malaka lebih cerdas ataow gimana?

dan dinamika sains di masa sekarang tetap menginspirasi muslim muda untuk mengejar ketinggalan...




untuk orang yang memaafkan walaupun ia mampu membalas
maka kembalilah kepada Tuhanmu dengan hati yang luas
avatar
abu hanan
GLOBAL MODERATOR
GLOBAL MODERATOR

Male
Age : 83
Posts : 7999
Kepercayaan : Islam
Location : soerabaia
Join date : 06.10.11
Reputation : 219

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by suara hati on Wed Jan 16, 2013 4:17 pm


So did Ibn al-Haytham's optics. His work on refraction and lenses led to the development of the telescope and microscope. Once these devices threw open their portals onto the invisible, there was no looking back. Van Leeuwenhoek's (1632-1723) "tiny animalcules" revealed the living world to be stranger than any natural philosopher could have guessed.

Quote tersebut aku ambil dari link :
http://www.physics.ohio-state.edu/~wilkins/writing/Assign/topics/bestidea.html
Jadi dari link yang kamu tampilkan dan pada item 'microscope' terdapat peran Ibnu Haitham....jadi invension itu bukan 'nemu barang di jalan'.


suara hati
SERSAN MAYOR
SERSAN MAYOR

Male
Posts : 288
Kepercayaan : Islam
Location : Medan
Join date : 29.11.12
Reputation : 5

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by SEGOROWEDI on Wed Jan 16, 2013 4:19 pm



ayat apa, menginspirasi muslim siapa, ,menemukan apa?

SEGOROWEDI
BRIGADIR JENDERAL
BRIGADIR JENDERAL

Posts : 43894
Kepercayaan : Protestan
Join date : 12.11.11
Reputation : 124

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by SEGOROWEDI on Wed Jan 16, 2013 4:21 pm


trus..
bukti kreativitas dan entrepreneurial muhammad mengurus bisnis warisan khotijah mana??

SEGOROWEDI
BRIGADIR JENDERAL
BRIGADIR JENDERAL

Posts : 43894
Kepercayaan : Protestan
Join date : 12.11.11
Reputation : 124

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by Andi Cactusa on Wed Jan 16, 2013 4:21 pm

@suara hati wrote:

Mayoritas otak dan nurani muslim memang rusak parah seperti anda. Mengira semua orang menuruti nabi Muhammadnya, yang melarang mencintai orang di luar teman seukuwahnya. Tugas saya adalah menghapus sikap, pemikiran dan kecurigaan seperti di benak anda yang brengsek itu, agar Indonesia bisa maju dengan pesat.
Ini lah gaya anti Islam jika sudah mulai nyungsep...mulai mengeluarkan kata kata yang tak ada hubungan dengan judul thread...mencoba memukul konsentrasi lawan dengan cara kotor..otak kamu sendiri yang jeblog bro.
...Lagi-lagi anda memamerkan kekurang-mampuan menangkap esensi pembicaraan atau dialog. Biar saya ajari anda, agar sedikit lebih pandai!
1. Abu Hanan menuduh saya memiliki tugas menghambat para pemikir dan inovator muda muslim, walau dengan gaya oratoris.
2. Emosi saya memang mendidih mendapat tuduhan seperti itu. Seumur hidup belum pernah saya membedakan orang berdasarkan suku atau agama, terutama dalam karir saya mulai dari staf hingga ke puncak (presiden direktur).
3. Di dunia ini memang hanya agama Islam yang melarang umatnya mencintai non-muslim. Jangan gunakan patron itu kepada saya. Yesus akan marah besar kalau saya hanya mencintai orang Kristen. Norma, nilai atau value hanya boleh mencintai teman seukuwah, yang malah dibanggakan oleh Abu Hanan, bagi saya memang ****** dan penganutnya otomatis*******juga.

Sensored by Moderator
STAFF - MOD 3


4. Sejak saya mulai memahami Islam, dari FFI sekitar 2.5 tahun lalu, lambat laun memang tumbuh rasa benci pada Islam. Ajaran Islam memang pantas dibenci dan dimusuhi oleh orang waras terutama orang yang berkarakter universal. Kebencian itu saya implementasikan dalam tulisan di sini dan FFI: Membujuk (to persuade) muslim meninggalkan Islam. Setelah saya pelajari dengan saksama, saya jadi yakin bahwa Indonesia tidak akan pernah bisa maju mengejar bangsa-bangsa lain, selama mayoritas penduduk negeri ini adalah muslim. Gangguan atau penghambat kemajuan dari penganut Islam akan selalu ada, seperti dari FPI, HTI atau NII.
5. Tetapi saya dan para sahabat muslim saya tetap saling mengasihi. Setiap hari Natal saya masih mendapat banyak parsel dari mantan bawahan saya yang muslim, walau saya sudah pensiun lebih dari 10 tahun. Setiap lebaran saya juga selalu menyempatkan waktu untuk bersilaruhim dengan mereka.
6. Gunakan lah karunia terbaik dan termahal yang diberikan oleh Allah kepada anda. Berpikir dan kritis lah, karena justru otak dan nurani itu yang membedakan kita dengan binatang. Ludahi para imam dan ulama parasit yang selalu memusuhi rasionalisme itu. Jangan mau terus-menerus diperlakukan dan dilatih seperti anjing, yang akan menuruti instruksi tuannya tanpa berpikir.
...Selamat berpikir, merenung, mencerna dan kemudian mengambil keputusan dan bertindak. Ahirnya dan semuanya terpulang ke tangan anda juga.
avatar
Andi Cactusa
LETNAN DUA
LETNAN DUA

Male
Posts : 784
Kepercayaan : Protestan
Location : Jakarta
Join date : 08.10.12
Reputation : 30

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by Andi Cactusa on Wed Jan 16, 2013 4:55 pm

@Bung Abu Hanan,

...Bila anda meng-invents suatu yang diilhami oleh pemikiran orang lain, dan kemudian mendaftarkannya ke Direktorat Paten, anda tidak akan diminta atau diharuskan untuk menjelaskan ide itu dari mana.
...Siapa kah yang lebih pantas dikagumi: Anda atau yang mengilhami anda itu? Kelihatannya anda ingin memaksakan bahwa kita harus lebih mengagumi inspirator si muslim (anggap benar demikian!) yang tidak bisa mewujudkan idenya menjadi suatu inovasi. Sungguh aneh atau lucu jalan pikiran anda!
...Tetapi bila itu memuaskan libido anda dan muslim lainnya, silahkan saja! Yang saya tahu, jalan pikiran dan sikap seperti itu tidak akan membawa anda ke mana-mana.

Tambahan: Tulisan di atas untuk bung Suara Hati juga, yang memiliki pola pikir yang sama dengan bung Abu Hanan.
avatar
Andi Cactusa
LETNAN DUA
LETNAN DUA

Male
Posts : 784
Kepercayaan : Protestan
Location : Jakarta
Join date : 08.10.12
Reputation : 30

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by isaku on Wed Jan 16, 2013 9:11 pm

@Andi Cactusa wrote:4. Sejak saya mulai memahami Islam, dari FFI sekitar 2.5 tahun lalu, lambat laun memang tumbuh rasa benci pada Islam. Ajaran Islam memang pantas dibenci dan dimusuhi oleh orang waras terutama orang yang berkarakter universal. Kebencian itu saya implementasikan dalam tulisan di sini dan FFI: Membujuk (to persuade) muslim meninggalkan Islam. Setelah saya pelajari dengan saksama, saya jadi yakin bahwa Indonesia tidak akan pernah bisa maju mengejar bangsa-bangsa lain, selama mayoritas penduduk negeri ini adalah muslim. Gangguan atau penghambat kemajuan dari penganut Islam akan selalu ada, seperti dari FPI, HTI atau NII.
terima kasih infonya, ini menjelaskan banyak hal... rupanya tidak terlalu berlebihan di pertemuan pertama, sy menyebut anda pembenci... info inipun menjelaskan darimana anda belajar mencaci, bermulut kotor, lbh menyukai flaming dibanding diskusi sehat...
@suara hati wrote:

Mayoritas otak dan nurani muslim memang rusak parah seperti anda. Mengira semua orang menuruti nabi Muhammadnya, yang melarang mencintai orang di luar teman seukuwahnya. Tugas saya adalah menghapus sikap, pemikiran dan kecurigaan seperti di benak anda yang brengsek itu, agar Indonesia bisa maju dengan pesat.
Ini lah gaya anti Islam jika sudah mulai nyungsep...mulai mengeluarkan kata kata yang tak ada hubungan dengan judul thread...mencoba memukul konsentrasi lawan dengan cara kotor..otak kamu sendiri yang jeblog bro.
...Lagi-lagi anda memamerkan kekurang-mampuan menangkap esensi pembicaraan atau dialog. Biar saya ajari anda, agar sedikit lebih pandai!
1. Abu Hanan menuduh saya memiliki tugas menghambat para pemikir dan inovator muda muslim, walau dengan gaya oratoris.
2. Emosi saya memang mendidih mendapat tuduhan seperti itu. Seumur hidup belum pernah saya membedakan orang berdasarkan suku atau agama, terutama dalam karir saya mulai dari staf hingga ke puncak (presiden direktur).
3. Di dunia ini memang hanya agama Islam yang melarang umatnya mencintai non-muslim. Jangan gunakan patron itu kepada saya. Yesus akan marah besar kalau saya hanya mencintai orang Kristen. Norma, nilai atau value hanya boleh mencintai teman seukuwah, yang malah dibanggakan oleh Abu Hanan, bagi saya memang brengsek dan penganutnya otomatis brengsek juga.
4. Sejak saya mulai memahami Islam, dari FFI sekitar 2.5 tahun lalu, lambat laun memang tumbuh rasa benci pada Islam. Ajaran Islam memang pantas dibenci dan dimusuhi oleh orang waras terutama orang yang berkarakter universal. Kebencian itu saya implementasikan dalam tulisan di sini dan FFI: Membujuk (to persuade) muslim meninggalkan Islam. Setelah saya pelajari dengan saksama, saya jadi yakin bahwa Indonesia tidak akan pernah bisa maju mengejar bangsa-bangsa lain, selama mayoritas penduduk negeri ini adalah muslim. Gangguan atau penghambat kemajuan dari penganut Islam akan selalu ada, seperti dari FPI, HTI atau NII.
5. Tetapi saya dan para sahabat muslim saya tetap saling mengasihi. Setiap hari Natal saya masih mendapat banyak parsel dari mantan bawahan saya yang muslim, walau saya sudah pensiun lebih dari 10 tahun. Setiap lebaran saya juga selalu menyempatkan waktu untuk bersilaruhim dengan mereka.
6. Gunakan lah karunia terbaik dan termahal yang diberikan oleh Allah kepada anda. Berpikir dan kritis lah, karena justru otak dan nurani itu yang membedakan kita dengan binatang. Ludahi para imam dan ulama parasit yang selalu memusuhi rasionalisme itu. Jangan mau terus-menerus diperlakukan dan dilatih seperti anjing, yang akan menuruti instruksi tuannya tanpa berpikir.
...Selamat berpikir, merenung, mencerna dan kemudian mengambil keputusan dan bertindak. Ahirnya dan semuanya terpulang ke tangan anda juga.
paradoks.....
1. belum pernah membedakan orang tapi meludahi para imam
2. hanya agama Islam yang melarang umatnya mencintai non-muslim tetapi saya dan para sahabat muslim saya tetap saling mengasihi
Membujuk (to persuade) muslim meninggalkan Islam
sy menyediakan diri sy u/ dibujuk... silahkan


isaku
KAPTEN
KAPTEN

Male
Posts : 3520
Kepercayaan : Islam
Location : Jakarta
Join date : 17.09.12
Reputation : 138

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by suara hati on Thu Jan 17, 2013 8:49 am

Kumpulan para ilmuwan muslim yang secara langsung dan tidak langsung berperan dalam proses invention, pada masa itu pihak Kristen masih tidur pulas...

Sumber link :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_science_and_engineering_in_the_Islamic_world#12th_century

8th century

770–840–[mathematics] Khwarizmi (Persian: خوارزمی‎ Khwarazmi, in Arabic became الخوارزمي al-Khwarizmi, Latinized name,Algorithm). Developed the "calculus of resolution and juxtaposition" (hisab al-jabr w'al-muqabala), more briefly referred to as al-jabr, or algebra.

776–868–[zoology; language] 'Amr ibn Bahr Al-Jahiz. Zoology, Arabic grammar, rhetoric, lexicography.

9th century

800–873–[various] Ibn Ishaq Al-Kindi (Latinized, Alkindus.) Philosophy, Physics, Optics, Medicine, Mathematics, Cryptography, Metallurgy. Worked at the House of Wisdom which was set up in 810.

803 – [chemistry; glass] d. Abu-Moussa Jabir ibn Hayyan (Latinized name, Geber,). Famous Persian chemist. First chemist known to produce sulfuric acid, as well as many other chemicals and instruments. Wrote on adding color to glass by adding small quantities of metallic oxides to the glass, such as manganese dioxide (magnesia). This was a new advancement in glass industry unknown in antiquity. His works include "The elaboration of the Grand Elixir"; "The chest of wisdom" in which he writes on nitric acid; Kitab al-istitmam (translated to Latin later as Summa Perfectionis); and others.

ca. 810 Bayt al-Hikma (House of Wisdom) set up in Baghdad. There Greek and Indian mathematical and astronomy works are translated into Arabic.

820–[mathematics] Mahani (full name Abu Abdollah Muhammad ibn Isa Mahani–in Arabic Al-Mahani). Conceived the idea of reducing geometrical problems such as duplicating the cube to problems in algebra. [1]

836–901 [anatomy; astronomy; mathematics; mechanics] Born Thabit Ibn Qurra (Latinized, Thebit.) Studied at Baghdad's House of Wisdom under the Banu Musa brothers. Made many contributions to mathematics, particularly in geometry and number theory. He discovered the theorem by which pairs of amicable numbers can be found; i.e., two numbers such that each is the sum of the proper divisors of the other.[1] Later, al-Baghdadi (b. 980) and al-Haytham (born 965) developed variants of the theorem.

838–870–Tabari (full name: Ali ibn Sahl Rabban Al-Tabari). Medicine, Mathematics, Calligraphy, Literature. [4]

mid 9th century–[chemistry] Al-Kindi writes on the distillation of wine as that of rose water and gives 107 recipes for perfumes, in his book Kitab Kimia al-`otoor wa al-tas`eedat (book of the chemistry of perfumes and distillations.)

850–930 [mathematics] born Abu Kamil of Egypt (full name, Abu Kamil Shuja ibn Aslam ibn Muhammad ibn Shuja) Forms an important link in the development of algebra between al-Khwarizmi and al-Karaji. Despite not using symbols, but writing powers of x in words, he had begun to understand what we would write in symbols as x^n \cdot x^m = x^{m+n} .[1]

858–929– [astronomy–mathematics] Al-Battani (Albategnius) Works on astronomy, trigonometry etc.

ca. 860–Al-Farghani (Al-Fraganus) Astronomy, Civil engineering.

864–930–[chemistry; medicine; ...] Razi (Rhazes) Medicine, Ophthalmology, Smallpox, Chemistry, Astronomy. Al-Razi wrote on Naft (naphta or petroleum) and its distillates in his book "Kitab sirr al-asrar" (book of the secret of secrets.) When choosing a site to build Baghdad's hospital, he hung pieces of fresh meat in different parts of the city. The location where the meat took the longest to rot was the one he chose for building the hospital. Advocated that patients not be told their real condition so that fear or despair do not affect the healing process. Wrote on alkali, caustic soda, soap and glycerine. Gave descriptions of equipment processes and methods in his book Kitab al-Asrar (book of secrets) in 925.

870–950 – Farabi (Al-Pharabius) Sociology, Logic, Philosophy, Political science, Music.

888 – [various] Died 'Abbas Ibn Firnas. Mechanics of Flight, Planetarium, Artificial Crystals. Ibn Firnas investigated means of flight and was apparently injured due to a trial in which he attempted to fly off of a cliff using wings. One of the earliest records of attempts at flight.

9th century – [chemistry; petroleum] Oilfields in Baku, Azerbaijan, generate commercial activities and industry. These oilfields, were wells are dug to get the Naft (or naphta, or crude petroleum) are described by geographer Masudi in the 10th century and by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads.

10th century

10th century [mathematics; accounting] By this century, three systems of counting are used in the Arab world. Finger-reckoning arithmetic, with numerals written entirely in words, used by the business community; the sexagesimal system, a remnant originating with the Babylonians, with numerals denoted by letters of the arabic alphabet and used by Arab mathematicians in astronomical work; and the Indian numeral system, which was used with various sets of symbols [1]. Its arithmetic at first required the use of a dust board (a sort of handheld blackboard) because "the methods required moving the numbers around in the calculation and rubbing some out as the calculation proceeded." Al-Uqlidisi (born 920) modified these methods for pen and paper use [1].

903–986 [astronomy] Al-Sufi (Latinized name, Azophi).

920 [mathematics] Born al-Uqlidisi. Modified arithmetic methods for the Indian numeral system to make it possible for pen and paper use. Hitherto, doing calculations with the Indian numerals necessitated the use of a dust board as noted earlier.

936–1013 [medicine] Al-Zahrawi (Latinized name, Albucasis) Surgery, Medicine. Called the "Father of Modern Surgery." [4]

940–997 [astronomy; mathematics] Muhammad Al-Buzjani. Mathematics, Astronomy, Geometry, Trigonometry.

940 [mathematics] Born Abu'l-Wafa al-Buzjani. Wrote several treatises using the finger-counting system of arithmetic, and was also an expert on the Indian numerals system. About the Indian system he wrote: "[it] did not find application in business circles and among the population of the Eastern Caliphate for a long time." [1] Using the Indian numeral system, abu'l Wafa was able to extract roots.

953 [mathematics] Born al-Karaji of Karaj and Baghdad (full name, Abu Bekr ibn Muhammad ibn al-Husayn Al-Karaji or al-Karkhi). Believed to be the "first person to completely free algebra from geometrical operations and to replace them with the arithmetical type of operations which are at the core of algebra today. He was first to define the monomials x, x^2, x^3, ... and 1/x, 1/x^2, 1/x^3, ... and to give rules for products of any two of these. He started a school of algebra which flourished for several hundreds of years" [1]. Discovered the binomial theorem for integer exponents. [1] states that this "was a major factor in the development of numerical analysis based on the decimal system."

957 [geography; cartography; exploration; chemistry] died Abul Hasan Ali Al-Masudi, best known as a cartographer, was also a traveler historian, etc. Al-mas`oudi described his visit to the oilfields of Baku. Wrote on the reaction of alkali water with zaj (vitriol) water giving sulfuric acid.

965–1040 [mathematics; optics; physics] Born ibn al-Haitham (full name, ; Latinized name, Alhazen). Possibly the first to classify all even perfect numbers (i.e., numbers equal to the sum of their proper divisors) as those of the form 2^{k-1}(2^k - 1) where 2^k - 1 is prime number [1]. Al-Haytham is also the first person to state Wilson's theorem. if p is prime then 1+(p-1)! is divisible by p. [1] says "It is called Wilson's theorem because of a comment by Waring in 1770 that John Wilson had noticed the result. There is no evidence that Wilson knew how to prove it. It was over 750 years later that Lagrange gave the first known proof to the statement in 1771.[1]

972–1058 [humanities] Al-Mawardi (Alboacen) Political science, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Ethics.

973–1048 [mathematics; physics] Abu Raihan Al-Biruni; Astronomy, Mathematics. Determined Earth's circumference.

980 [mathematics] Born al-Baghdadi (full name, ). Studied a slight variant of Thabit ibn Qurra's theorem on amicable numbers.[1] Al-Baghdadi also wrote texts comparing the three systems of counting and arithmetic used in the region during this period. Made improvements on the decimal system.

981–1037 [astronomy; mathematics; medicine; philosophy] Ibn Sina (Avicenna); Medicine, Philosophy, Mathematics, Astronomy

11th century

1044 or 1048–1123 [mathematics] Omar Al-Khayyam. Persian mathematician and poet. "Gave a complete classification of cubic equations with geometric solutions found by means of intersecting conic sections. Khayyam also wrote that he hoped to give a full description of the algebraic solution of cubic equations in a later work: 'If the opportunity arises and I can succeed, I shall give all these fourteen forms with all their branches and cases, and how to distinguish whatever is possible or impossible so that a paper, containing elements which are greatly useful in this art will be prepared.' " [1]. Extracted roots using the decimal system (the Indian numeral system). There is dispute whether the Maqamat, a famous diwan of poetry translated to English are actually his work.

1058–1111 [law; theology] Al-Ghazali (Algazel), judge and prolific thinker and writer on topis such as sociology, theology and philosophy. He critiqued the so-called Greek philosophers Ibn Sina, aka Avicenna and al-Farabi, aka Farabius. Wrote extensive expositions on Islamic tenets and foundations of jurisprudence. Also critiqued the Muslim scholastics (al-mutakallimun.) Was associated with sufism but he later critiqued it as well.

1091–1161 [medicine] Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) Surgery, Medicine.

1099–1166 [cartography;geography] Muhammad Al-Idrisi (Dreses)

12th century

1100–1166 (AH 493–560) [cartography, geography] Muhammad al-Idrissi, aka Idris al-Saqalli aka al-sharif al-idrissi of Andalusia and Sicily. Known for having drawn some of the most advanced ancient world maps, as well as writing on travels and geography.

1106–1138 [polymath] Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya (Ibn Bajjah) Philosophy, Medicine, Mathematics, Astronomy, Poetry, Music.

1110–1185 [literature, philosophy] Abdubacer Ibn Tufayl of Spain. Philosophy, medicine, poetry, fiction. His most famous work is Hayy ibn Yaqzan, which is a spiritual investigation into the reality of the world narrated by a man who was raised from infancy by a roe or gazelle.

1128–1198 [philosophy] Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Philosophy, Law, Medicine, Astronomy, Theology.

1130 [mathematics] Born al-Samawal. An important member of al-Karaji's school of algebra. Gave this definition of algebra: "[it is concerned] with operating on unknowns using all the arithmetical tools, in the same way as the arithmetician operates on the known." [1]

1135 [mathematics] Born Sharafeddin Tusi. Follows al-Khayyam's application of algebra of geometry, rather than follow the general development that came through al-Karaji's school of algebra. Wrote a treatise on cubic equations which [3] describes thus: "[the treatise] represents an essential contribution to another algebra which aimed to study curves by means of equations, thus inaugurating the beginning of algebraic geometry." (quoted in [1]).

13th century

13th century–[medicine; scientific method] Ibn Al-Nafis b. ca. 607AH, d. ca. 689AH. Damascene physician and anatomist. Discovered the lesser circulatory system (the cycle involving the ventricles of the heart and the lungs), and described the mechanism of breathing and its relation to the blood and how it nourishes on air in the lungs. Followed a "constructivist" path of the smaller circulatory system: "blood is purified in the lungs for the continuance of life and providing the body with the ability to work". During his time, the common view was that blood originates in the liver then travels to the right ventricle, then on to the organs of the body; another contemporary view was that blood is filtered through the diaphragm where it mixes with the air coming from the lungs. Ibn al-Nafis discredited all these views including ones by Galen and Avicenna (ibn Sina). At least an illustration of his manuscript is still extant. William Harvey explained the circulatory system without reference to ibn al-Nafis in 1628. Ibn al-Nafis extolled the study of comparative anatomy in his "Explaining the dissection of [Avicenna's] Al-Qanoon" which includes a prefaces, and citations of sources. Emphasized the rigours of verification by measurement, observation and experiment. Subjected conventional wisdom of his time to a critical review and verified it with experiment and observation, discarding errors.

13th century–[chemistry] Al-Jawbari describes the preparation of rose water in the work "Book of Selected Disclosure of Secrets" (Kitab kashf al-Asrar).

13th century–[chemistry; materials; glassmaking] Arabic manuscript on the manufacture of false gemstones and diamonds. Also describes spirits of alum, spirits of saltpetre and spirits of salts (hydrochloric acid).

13th century–[chemistry] An Arabic manuscript written in syriac script gives description of various chemical materials and their properties such as sulfuric acid, sal-ammoniac, saltpetre and zaj (vitriol).

1201–1274–[astronomy; mathematics] Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi; Astronomy, Non-Euclidean geometry.

1204 [astronomy] Died, Al-Bitruji (Alpetragius.)

1207–1273 [sociology; poetry; spirituality] Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, one of the best known Persian passion poets, famous for poignant poetry on the theme of spiritual enlightenment and passion.

1213–1288[anatomy] Ibn Al-Nafis al-Damishqui.

1248–[pharmacy; veterinary medicine] Died Ibn Al-Baitar. Studied and wrote on botany, pharmacy and is best known for studying animal anatomy and medicine. The Arabic term for veterinary medicine is named after him.

1260 [mathematics] Born al-Farisi. Gave a new proof of Thabit ibn Qurra's theorem, introducing important new ideas concerning factorization and combinatorial methods. He also gave the pair of amicable numbers 17296, 18416 which have also been joint attributed to Fermat as well as Thabit ibn Qurra.[1]

1273–1331 [astronomy; geography; history] Abu al-Fida (Abulfeda).

14th century

1301–[ceramics] Al-Kashani promotes a center for ceramics.[citation needed] He also writes a book on Islamic ceramics techniques. His name is still associated with ceramics in the Muslim Orient today.

1304–1369 [exploration; travel] Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Battuta; World Traveler. 75,000 mile voyage from Morocco to China and back.

1332–1395 [history; political science; humanities] Ibn Khaldun. Sociology, Philosophy of History, general science, Political Science. His most famous work, al-Muqqadima (Prolegomena), encyclopedic in breadth, surveys the state of knowledge of his day, covering geography, accounts of the peoples of the world and their known history, the classification and aims of the sciences and the religious sciences.

1380 [mathematics] Born al-Kashi. According to [1], "contributed to the development of decimal fractions not only for approximating algebraic numbers, but also for real numbers such as pi. His contribution to decimal fractions is so major that for many years he was considered as their inventor. Although not the first to do so, al-Kashi gave an algorithm for calculating nth roots which is a special case of the methods given many centuries later by Ruffini and Horner."

1393–1449 – [astronomy] Ulugh Beg commissions an observatory at Samarqand in present-day Uzbekistan.

15th century

15th century [mathematics] Ibn al-Banna and al-Qalasadi used symbols for mathematics in the 15th century "and, although we do not know exactly when their use began, we know that symbols were used at least a century before this." [1]

15th century–[astronomy and mathematics] Ibn Masoud (Ghayyathuddin Jamshid ibn Mohamed ibn mas`oud, d. 1424 or 1436.) Wrote on the decimal system. First to introduce the zero (Indian mathematicians had used only nine glyphs for numerals). Computed and observed the solar eclipses of 809AH, 810AH and 811AH, after being invited by Ulugh Bek, based in Samarqand to pursue his study of mathematics, astronomy and physics. His works include "The Key of arithmetics"; "Discoveries in mathematics"; "The Decimal point"; "the benefits of the zero". The contents of the Benefits of the Zero are an introduction followed by five essays: On whole number arithmetic; On fractional arithmetic; on astrology; on areas; on finding the unknowns [unknown variables]. He also wrote a "Thesis on the sine and the chord"; "thesis on the circumference" in which he found the ratio of the circumference to the radius of a circle to the 16th decimal; "The garden of gardens" or "promenade of the gardens" describing an instrument he devised and used at the Samarqand observatory to compile an ephemeris, and for computing solar and lunar eclipses; The ephemeresis "Zayj Al-Khaqani" which also includes mathematical tables and corrections of the ephemeresis by Al-Tusi; "Thesis on finding the first degree sine"; and more.

1411 [mathematics] Al-Kashi writes Compendium of the Science of Astronomy [5].

1424 [mathematics] Al-Kashi writes Treatise on the Circumference giving a remarkably good approximation to pi in both sexagesimal and decimal forms [5].

1427 [mathematics] Al-Kashi completes The Key to Arithmetic containing work of great depth on decimal fractions. It applies arithmetical and algebraic methods to the solution of various problems, including several geometric ones and is one of the best textbooks in the whole of medieval literature [5].

1437 [mathematics] Ulugh Beg publishes his star catalogue Zij-i Sultani. It contains trigonometric tables correct to eight decimal places based on Ulugh Beg's calculation of the sine of one degree which he calculated correctly to 16 decimal places [5].

16th century

1502 - [standards] First law about standarts of the world. “Kanunname-i Ihtisab-i Bursa (The Law of Bursa Municipality) was the first law about the standards. This law was imposed in the period of Sultan Bayezid II, in 1502. In this law, animal products, fruits and vegetables, salt, bread, industrial products, textile products, forest products, and leather products were bounded to a standard and their prices were fixed. Some of these standards are that: Vegetables: For fresh courgette no official price will be fixed for 3 days. After 3 days 3 okka will be sold for one coin. In the first week 4 okka, in the second week 5 okka, in the third week 6 okka, in the fourth week 8 okka will be sold for one coin. Jewelers: Silver will be not under 80 standard. 1.5 drams of gold will be not under 60 coins.[2]

16th century [Aviation] A Turk in Istanbul attempted to fly. In 1648 John Wilkins cites Busbecq, the Austrian ambassador to Istanbul 1554-1562, as recording that "a Turk in Istanbul" attempted to fly.[3]

17th century
Lagâri Hasan Çelebis rocket flight depicted in a 17th-century engraving

17th century [mathematics] The Arabic mathematician Mohammed Baqir Yazdi joint discovered the pair of amicable numbers 9,363,584 and 9,437,056 along with Descartes (1636).[4]

1630-1632 [Aviation] Hezârfen Ahmed Çelebi was a legendary Ottoman aviator of 17th-century Istanbul, purported in the writings of Evliya Çelebi to have achieved sustained unpowered flight.[5]

1633 - [rocketry] Lagari Hasan Çelebi was a legendary Ottoman aviator who, according to an account written by Evliya Çelebi, made a successful manned rocket flight. Evliya Çelebi purported that in 1633 Lagari Hasan Çelebi launched in a 7-winged rocket using 50 okka (140 lbs) of gunpowder from Sarayburnu, the point below Topkapı Palace in Istanbul.


18th century

1783–1799–[rocketry] Tipu, Sultan of Mysore [1783–1799] in the south of India, was an experimentator with war rockets. Two of his rockets, captured by the British at Srirangapatana, are displayed in the Woolwich Royal Artillery Museum in London. The rocket motor casing was made of steel with multiple nozzles. The rocket, 50 mm in diameter and 250 mm long, had a range performance of 900 meters to 1.5 km. (src: http://www.cyberistan.org/islamic/).


suara hati
SERSAN MAYOR
SERSAN MAYOR

Male
Posts : 288
Kepercayaan : Islam
Location : Medan
Join date : 29.11.12
Reputation : 5

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by suara hati on Thu Jan 17, 2013 8:57 am

Ilustrasi peluncuran roket di abad 17 atau 1633 zaman Lagari Hasan Celeby (Turki) :


suara hati
SERSAN MAYOR
SERSAN MAYOR

Male
Posts : 288
Kepercayaan : Islam
Location : Medan
Join date : 29.11.12
Reputation : 5

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by suara hati on Thu Jan 17, 2013 9:06 am

Diambil dari link : http://metaexistence.org/inventions.htm

Inventions in the Islamic World
Islamic Astronomy: Astronomical instruments

Muslim astronomers developed a number of astronomical instruments, including several variations of the astrolabe, originally invented by Hipparchus in the 2nd century BCE, but with considerable improvements made to the device in the Muslim world. These instruments were used by Muslims for a variety of purposes related to astronomy, astrology, horoscopes, navigation, surveying, timekeeping, Qibla, Salah, etc.

Astrolabes
Brass astrolabe by Muhammad al-Fazari in the 8th century.
Earliest surviving astrolabe in 315 AH (927-928 CE).
Mechanical geared astrolabe by Ibn Samh (c. 1020).
Navigational astrolabe was invented in the Islamic world. It employed the use of a polar projection system.
In the 10th century, al-Sufi first described over 1000 different uses of an astrolabe, including uses in astronomy, astrology, horoscopes, navigation, surveying, timekeeping, Qibla, Salah, etc.
Orthographical astrolabe by Abu Rayhan al-Biruni in the 11th century.
Saphaea, a universal astrolabe for all latitudes, by Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al-Zarqali (Arzachel) in 11th century Islamic Spain.
Zuraqi, a heliocentric astrolabe where the Earth is in motion rather than the sky, by al-Sijzi in the 11th century.
Linear astrolabe ("staff of al-Tusi") by Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi in the 12th century.

Analog Machines (or Computers)
Equatorium by Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al-Zarqali (Arzachel) in Islamic Spain circa 1015.
Planisphere by Abu Rayhan al-Biruni in the 11th century.
Mechanical lunisolar calendar computer with gear train and gear-wheels by Abu Rayhan al-Biruni.
Fixed-wired knowledge processing machine by Abu Rayhan al-Biruni.
Mechanical astrolabe with calendar computer and gear-wheels by Abi Bakr of Isfahan in 1235.
Oldest surviving complete mechanical geared machine by Abi Bakr of Isfahan in 1235.
The Plate of Conjunctions, a computing instrument used to determine the time of day at which planetary conjunctions will occur,and for performing linear interpolation, invented by al-Kashi in the 15th century.
A mechanical planetary computer called the Plate of Zones, which could graphically solve a number of planetary problems, invented by al-Kashi in the 15th century. It could predict the true positions in longitude of the Sun and Moon, and the planets in terms of elliptical orbits;the latitudes of the Sun, Moon, and planets; and the ecliptic of the Sun. The instrument also incorporated an alhidade and ruler.

Armillary spheres
Several different types of armillary spheres.
Celestial globes which could calculate the altitude of the Sun and the right ascension and declination of the stars in the 11th century.
The spherical astrolabe was first produced in the Islamic world by the 14th century.

Mural instruments
The first quadrants and mural instruments by al-Khwarizmi in 9th century Baghdad, Iraq.
Sine quadrant for astronomical calculations by al-Khwarizmi in 9th century Baghdad.
Horary quadrant for specific latitudes by al-Khwarizmi in 9th century Baghdad.
The Quadrans Vetus, a universal horary quadrant which could be used for any latitude and at any time of the year to determine the time, as well as the times of Salah, invented by al-Khwarizmi in 9th century Baghdad. This was the second most widely used astronomical instrument during the Middle Ages after the astrolabe.
The Quadrans Novus, an astrolabic quadrant invented in Egypt in the 11th century or 12th century, and later known in Europe as the "Quadrans Vetus" (New Quadrant).
Almucantar quadrant, invented in the medieval Islamic world. It employed the use of trigonometry. The term "almucantar" is itself derived from Arabic.
Astronomical sextant by Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi in Ray, Iran in 994.

Other instruments
Alhidade (the term "alhidade" is itself derived from Arabic).
Shadow square, an instrument used to determine the linear height of an object, in conjunction with the alidade for angular observations, invented by Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi in 9th century Baghdad.
Highly accurate astronomical clocks.
Astrometric device in Islamic Spain around 1015.
Star chart by Abu Rayhan al-Biruni in the 11th century.

Aviation Technology

Parachute
In 9th century Islamic Spain, Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firnas) invented a primitive version of the parachute. John H. Lienhard described it in The Engines of Our Ingenuity as follows:

"In 852, a new Caliph and a bizarre experiment: A daredevil named Armen Firman decided to fly off a tower in Cordova. He glided back to earth, using a huge winglike cloak to break his fall. He survived with minor injuries, and the young Ibn Firnas was there to see it."

Hang glider
Shortly afterwards, Abbas Ibn Firnas built the first hang glider, which may have also been the first manned glider. Knowledge of Firman and Firnas' flying machines spread to other parts of Europe from Arabic references.

According to Philip Hitti in History of the Arabs:
"Ibn Firnas was the first man in history to make a scientific attempt at flying."


Flight controls
Abbas Ibn Firnas was the first to make an attempt at controlled flight. He manuipulated the flight controls of his hang glider using two sets of artificial wings to adjust his altitude and to change his direction. He successfully returned to where he had lifted off from, but his landing was unsuccessful.


Artificial wings
Ibn Firnas' hang glider was the first to have artificial wings, though the flight was eventually unsuccessful. According to Evliya Çelebi in the 17th century, Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi was the first aviator to have made a successful flight with artificial wings between 1630-1632.


Artificially-powered manned rocket
According to Evliya Çelebi in the 17th century, Lagari Hasan Çelebi launched himself in the air in a seven-winged rocket, which was composed of a large cage with a conical top filled with gunpowder. The flight was accomplished as a part of celebrations performed for the birth of Ottoman Emperor Murad IV's daughter in 1633. Evliya reported that Lagari made a soft landing in the Bosporus by using the wings attached to his body as a parachute after the gunpowder was consumed, foreshadowing the sea-landing methods of astronauts with parachutes after their voyages into outer space. Lagari's flight was estimated to have lasted about twenty seconds and the maximum height reached was around 300 metres. This was the first known example of a manned rocket and an artificially-powered aircraft.

Astronautics and space exploration
In the 20th century, Muslim rocket scientists from Soviet Central Asia were involved in research on astronautics and space exploration. Kerim Kerimov from Azerbaijan was one of the most important key figures in early space exploration. He was one of the founders of the Soviet space program, one of the lead architects behind the first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), and responsible for the launch of the first space stations (the Salyut and Mir series) as well as their predecessors (the Cosmos 186 and Cosmos 188).


Camera technology

Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), the "father of optics" and pioneer of the modern scientific method, invented the camera obscura and pinhole camera.
In ancient times, Euclid and Ptolemy believed that the eyes emitted rays which enabled us to see. The first person to realise that rays of light enters the eye, rather than leaving it, was the 10th century Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physicist Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), who is regarded as the "father of optics".He is also credited with being the first man to shift physics from a philosophical activity to an experimental one, with his development of the scientific method. The word "camera" comes from the Arabic word qamara for a dark or private room.

Pinhole camera
Ibn al-Haytham first described pinhole camera after noticing the way light came through a hole in window shutters.[39]


Camera obscura
Ibn al-Haytham worked out that the smaller the hole, the better the picture, and set up the first camera obscura, a precursor to the modern camera.

Chemical technology
Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), the father of chemistry, invented the alembic still and many chemicals, including distilled alcohol, and established the perfume industry.
Early forms of distillation were known to the Babylonians, Greeks and Egyptians since ancient times, but it was Muslim chemists who first invented pure distillation processes which could fully purify chemical substances. They also developed several different variations of distillation (such as dry distillation, destructive distillation and steam distillation) and introduced new distillation aparatus (such as the alembic, still, and retort), and invented a variety of new chemical processes and over 2,000 chemical substances.


Chemical processes
Geber first invented the following chemical processes in the 8th century:
Pure distillation (al-taqtir) which could fully purify chemical substances with the alembic.
Filtration (al-tarshih)
Liquefaction, crystallization (al-tabalwur), purification, oxidisation, and evaporation (tabkhir).

Al-Razi invented the following chemical processes in the 9th century:
Dry distillation
Calcination (al-tashwiya).
Solution (al-tahlil), sublimation (al-tas'id), amalgamation (al-talghim), ceration (al-tashmi), and a method of converting a substance into a thick paste or fusible solid.
Other chemical processes introduced by Muslim chemists include:

Assation (or roasting), cocotion (or digestion), ceration, lavage, solution, mixture, and fixation.
Destructive distillation was invented by Muslim chemists in the 8th century to produce tar from petroleum.
Steam distillation was invented by Avicenna in the early 11th century for the purpose of producing essential oils.
Water purification

Ahmad Y Hassan wrote:
"The distillation of wine and the properties of alcohol were known to Islamic chemists from the eighth century. The prohibition of wine in Islam did not mean that wine was not produced or consumed or that Arab alchemists did not subject it to their distillation processes. Jabir ibn Hayyan described a cooling technique which can be applied to the distillation of alcohol."

Laboratory apparatus
Alembic and still by Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) in the 9th century.
Retort by Jabir ibn Hayyan.
Thermometer and air thermometer by Abu Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna) in the 11th century.
Conical measure by Abu Rayhan al-Biruni in the 11th century.
Laboratory flask and pycnometer by Abu Rayhan al-Biruni.
Hydrostatic balance and steelyard by al-Khazini in 1121.
Muslim chemists and engineers invented the cucurbit and aludel, and the equipment needed for melting metals such as furnaces and crucibles.
Al-Razi (Rhazes), in his Secretum secretorum (Latinized title), first described the following tools for melting substances (li-tadhwib): hearth (kur), bellows (minfakh aw ziqq), crucible (bawtaqa), the but bar but (in Arabic) or botus barbatus (in Latin), tongs (masik aq kalbatan), scissors (miqta), hammer (mukassir), file (mibrad).
Al-Razi also first described the following tools for the preparation of drugs (li-tadbir al-aqaqir): cucurbit and still with evacuation tube (qar aq anbiq dhu-khatm), receiving matras (qabila), blind still (without evacuation tube) (al-anbiq al-ama), aludel (al-uthal), goblets (qadah), flasks (qarura or quwarir), rosewater flasks (ma wariyya), cauldron (marjal aw tanjir), earthenware pots varnished on the inside with their lids (qudur aq tanjir), water bath or sand bath (qadr), oven (al-tannur in Arabic, athanor in Latin), small cylindirical oven for heating aludel (mustawqid), funnels, sieves, filters, etc.

Chemical industries
Chemical substances invented for use in the chemical industries include:

Sulfuric acid, originally coined as oil of vitriol when it was discovered by Jabir ibn Hayyan.
The mineral acids: nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid, by Geber.
Pure distilled alcohol (ethanol) by Jabir ibn Hayyan in the 8th century.
Uric acid and nitric acid by Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) in the 8th century.
Lustreware, by Geber in the 8th century.
Artificial pearl, purified pearl, dyed pearl, dyed gemstones, cheese glue, and plated mail, by Geber.
Kerosene and kerosene lamp by al-Razi in the 9th century.
Petrol by Muslim chemists.
Tar in the 8th century, and Naphtha in the 9th century.
Medicinal alcohol in the 10th century.
Essential oil by Abu Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna) in the 11th century.
Hygienic cosmetics by Muslim chemists.
Dyestuff by Muslim chemists.
Arsenic, alkali, alkali salt, rice vinegar, boraxes, potassium nitrate, sulfur and purified sal ammoniac by Geber.
Sal nitrum and vitriol by al-Razi.
Ethanol, sulfuric acid, ammonia, mercury, camphor, pomades, and syrups.
Lead carbonatic, arsenic, and antimony.
Nitric and sulfuric acids, alkali, the salts of mercury, antimony, and bismuth.
Aqua regia, alum, sal ammoniac, stones, sulfur, salts, and spirits of mercury.
At least 2,000 medicinal substances.
The classification of all seven classical metals: gold, silver, tin, lead, mercury, iron, and copper, by Geber.

Will Durant wrote in The Story of Civilization IV: The Age of Faith:
"Chemistry as a science was almost created by the Muslims; for in this field, where the Greeks (so far as we know) were confined to industrial experience and vague hypothesis, the Saracens introduced precise observation, controlled experiment, and careful records. They invented and named the alembic (al-anbiq), chemically analyzed innumerable substances, composed lapidaries, distinguished alkalis and acids, investigated their affinities, studied and manufactured hundreds of drugs. Alchemy, which the Moslems inherited from Egypt, contributed to chemistry by a thousand incidental discoveries, and by its method, which was the most scientific of all medieval operations."

Robert Briffault wrote in The Making of Humanity:
"Chemistry, the rudiments of which arose in the processes employed by Egyptian metallurgists and jewellers combining metals into various alloys and 'tinting' them to resemble gold processes long preserved as a secret monopoly of the priestly colleges, and clad in the usual mystic formulas, developed in the hands of the Arabs into a widespread, organized passion for research which led them to the invention of distillation, sublimation, filtration, to the discovery of alcohol, of nitric and sulphuric acids (the only acid known to the ancients was vinegar), of the alkalis, of the salts of mercury, of antimony and bismuth, and laid the basis of all subsequent chemistry and physical research."[63]


Drinking industry
Coffee by Khalid in Kaffa, Ethiopia.
Distilled water and purified water by Muslim chemists.
Purified distilled alcohol by Jabir ibn Hayyan in the 8th century.
Sherbet and sharab, the first juiced carbonated soft drinks.
Recipes for drink syrups that can be kept outside the refrigerator for weeks or months.


Hygiene industries
True soap, made of vegetable oils (such as olive oil) with sodium hydroxide and aromatics (such as thyme oil), invented by al-Razi (Rhazes)
Soap bar by al-Razi (Rhazes)
Sodium Lye (Al-Soda Al-Kawia), perfumed and colored soaps, and liquid and solid soaps by Muslim chemists.
Recipes for soaps, such as ones made from sesame oil, potash, alkali, lime, and molds, leaving hard soap (soap bar).
Shampoo by the Bengali Muslim Sake Dean Mahomet in 1759.

Perfumery industry
Al-Kindi invented a wide variety of scent and perfume products, and is considered the father of the perfume industry.
Perfume usage recorded in 7th century Arabian Peninsula.
Perfume industry established by Geber (Jabir) (b. 722, Iraq) and al-Kindi (b. 801, Iraq).
Jabir developed many techniques, including distillation, evaporation and filtration, which enabled the collection of the odour of plants into a vapour that could be collected in the form of water or oil.
Al-Kindi carried out extensive research and experiments in combining various plants and other sources to produce a variety of scent products.
Al-Kindi elaborated a vast number of recipes for a wide range of perfumes, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
The preparation of a perfume called ghaliya, which contained musk, amber and other ingredients, and the use of various drugs and apparatus, by al-Kindi.
Extraction of fragrances through steam distillation by Abu Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna) in the 11th century.
Introduction of new raw ingredients in perfumery.
Perfumery produced from different spices, herbals, and other fragrance materials.
Introduction of jasmine from South and Southeast Asia, and citrus fruits from East Asia in modern perfumery.
Cheap mass production of incenses.
Musk and floral perfumes in the 11th-12th century Arabian Peninsula.

Civil engineering
Bridge dam
The bridge dam was used to power a water wheel working a water-raising mechanism. The first was built in Dezful, Iran, which could raise 50 cubits of water for the water supply to all houses in the town. Similar bridge dams later appeared in other parts of the Islamic world.

Cobwork
Cobwork (tabya) first appeared in the Maghreb and al-Andalus in the 11th century and was first described in detail by Ibn Khaldun in the 14th century, who regarded it as a characteristically Muslim practice. Cobwork later spread to other parts of Europe from the 12th century onwards.


Diversion dam
The first diversion dam was built by medieval Muslim engineers over the River Uzaym in Jabal Hamrin, Iraq. Many of these were later built in other parts of the Islamic world.


High-rise skyscrapers and vertical construction urban planning
The 16th-century city of Shibam in Yemen is regarded as the "oldest skyscraper-city in the world" and the "Manhattan of the desert." This is the earliest example of urban planning based on the principle of vertical construction. Shibam was made up of over 500 tower houses, each one rising 5 to 9 storeys high, with each floor being an apartment occupied by a single family.

In the 20th century, the Bangladeshi engineer Fazlur Khan, regarded as the "Einstein of structural engineering" and "the greatest architectural engineer of the second half of the 20th century" produced designs of structural systems that remain fundamental to all high-rise skyscrapers, which he employed in his constructions for the John Hancock Center and Sears Tower.

The Sears Tower remained the world's tallest building up until 2007, when the Burj Dubai, currently under construction in Dubai, surpassed its height as the world's tallest building.The world's tallest twin towers, the Petronas Twin Towers, was also built in Malaysia in 1998.


Prefabricated homes and movable structures
The first prefabricated homes and movable structures were invented in 16th century Mughal India by Akbar the Great. These structures were reported by Arif Qandahari in 1579.


Street lighting and litter collection facilities
The first street lamps were built in the Arab Empire, especially in Cordoba, which also had the first facilities and waste containers for litter collection.

Surveying instruments
Muslim engineers invented a variety of surveying instruments for accurate levelling, including a wooden board with a plumb line and two hooks, an equilateral triangle with a plumb line and two hooks, and a "reed level". They also invented a rotating alhidade used for accurate alignment, and a surveying astrolabe used for alignment, measuring angles, triangulation, finding the width of a river, and the distance between two points separated by an impassable obstruction.

Clock technology

Astronomical clocks
Muslim astronomers and engineers constructed a variety of highly accurate astronomical clocks for use in their observatories.

In the 10th century, al-Sufi first described over 1000 different uses of an astrolabe, including timekeeping and Salah.
Mechanical lunisolar calendar computer with gear train and gear-wheels by Abu Rayhan al-Biruni.
Mechanical astrolabe with calendar computer and gear-wheels by Abi Bakr of Isfahan in 1235.
The Quadrans Vetus, a universal horary quadrant which could be used for any latitude and at any time of the year to determine the time, as well as the times of Salah, invented by al-Khwarizmi in 9th century Baghdad. This was the second most widely used astronomical instrument during the Middle Ages after the astrolabe.
Al-Jazari invented monumental water-powered astronomical clocks which displayed moving models of the Sun, Moon, and stars. His largest astronomical clock displayed the zodiac and the solar and lunar orbits. Another innovative feature of the clock was a pointer which travelled across the top of a gateway and caused automatic doors to open every hour.
Taqi al-Din invented the "observational clock", which he described as "a mechanical clock with three dials which show the hours, the minutes, and the seconds", used this for astronomical purposes, specifically for measuring the right ascension of the stars. This is considered one of the most important innovations in 16th century practical astronomy, as previous clocks were not accurate enough to be used for astronomical purposes.

Candle clocks
Al-Jazari described the most sophisticated candle clocks known to date. These clocks were designed using a large candle of uniform weight and cross section, whose rate of burning was known, which was placed in a metal sheath with a fitted cap. The bottom of the candle rested on a shallow dish that had a ring on its side connected through pulleys to a counterweight. As the candle burned away, the weight pushed it upward at a constant speed, while an automaton was operated from the dish at the bottom of the candle.


Dials
Universal sundials for all latitudes used for timekeeping and for the determination of the times of Salah in 9th century Baghdad.
The Navicula de Venetiis, a universal horary dial used for accurate timekeeping by the Sun and Stars, and could be observed from any latitude, invented in 9th century Baghdad.This was later considered the most sophisticated timekeeping instrument of the Renaissance.
The compass dial, a timekeeping device incorporating both a universal sundial and a magnetic compass, invented by Ibn al-Shatir in the 13th century.

The elephant clock from Al-Jazari's manuscript.
Elephant clock with automaton, regulator and closed loop

The elephant clock described by al-Jazari in 1206 is notable for several innovations. It was the first clock in which an automaton reacted after certain intervals of time (in this case, a humanoid robot striking the cymbal and a mechanical bird chirping), the first mechanism to employ a flow regulator, and the earliest example of a closed-loop system in a mechanism.

The float regulator employed in the clock later had an important influence during the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, when it was employed in the boiler of a steam engine and in domestic water systems.


Mechanical clocks
The first mechanical clocks driven by weights and gears were invented by Muslim engineers. The first geared mechanical clocks were invented by the 11th century Arab engineer Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi from Islamic Spain. He employed gear trains with the earliest segmental and epicyclic gears used to transmit high torque in his mechanical clock. The first weight-driven mechanical clocks, employing a mercury escapement mechanism and a clock face similar to an astrolabe dial, were first invented by Muslim engineers in the 11th century. A similar weight-driven mechanical clock later appeared in a Spanish language work compiled from earlier Arabic sources for Alfonso X in 1277. The knowledge of weight-driven mechanical clocks produced by Muslim engineers in Spain was transmitted to other parts of Europe through Latin translations of Arabic and Spanish texts on Muslim mechanical technology.

Al-Jazari invented some of the earliest mechanical clocks driven by both water and weights, including a water-powered scribe clock. This water powered portable clock was a meter high and half a meter wide. The scribe with his pen was synonymous to the hour hand of a modern clock. This is an example of an ingenious water system by al-Jazari.Al-Jazari's famous water-powered scribe clock was reconstructed successfully at the Science Museum (London) in 1976.

Other monumental water clocks constructed by medieval Muslim engineers also employed complex gear trains, arrays of automata, and weight-drives, while the escapement mechanism was present in their mercury clocks and in the hydraulic controls they used to make heavy floats descend at a slow and steady rate.


Striking clock
According to a 1202 manuscript written by Ridhwan al-Sa’ati, Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad b. Naser b. Saghir b. Khalid al-Kaysarani contructed the first striking clock in 1154 as part of a clock tower, similar to the Big Ben, near the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, Syria.


Watch
According to Will Durant, Abbas Ibn Firnas invented a watch-like device in the 9th century which kept accurate time.


Water clocks
While simple water clocks were known since ancient China and India, Muslim engineers designed complex water clocks with the a variety of innovations. One example is the 11th century Arab engineer Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi from Islamic Spain, who invented the first water clocks to be powered by water wheels, as well as water clocks run by both water power and gear trains.

Al-Jazari invented water clocks which employed automata to mark the passage of time, including mechanical birds which discharge pellets from their beaks onto cymbals, doors which opened to reveal humanoid robots, rotating Zodiac circles, humanoid robot musicians who strike drums or play trumpets, etc. He introduced pulley systems and tripping mechanisms as means of transmitting power from the prime movers to the automata.

The largest of his water clocks had a working clock face that was 11 feet high and 4.5 feet wide, and a drive which came from the steady descent of a heavy float in a circular reservoir. He introduced the use of a float chamber and the method of feedback control in order to maintain a constant outflow from the reservoir. Another innovative feature of the clock was how it recorded the passage of temporal hours, which meant that the rate of flow had to be changed daily to match the uneven length of days throughout the year. This was achieved with the use of a pipe leading from the float chamber into a flow regulator which was accurately calibrated using trial and error methods.

Al-Jazari invented another type of clock which incorporated a closed-loop system, where the clock worked as long as it was loaded with metal balls with which to strike a gong.[78] Al-Jazari also invented water clocks with oil lamps and automatic clocks.


Industrial milling
Further information: Muslim Agricultural Revolution - Industrial growth

Bridge mill
The bridge mill was a unique type of water mill that was built as part of the superstructure of a bridge. The earliest record of a bridge mill is from Cordoba, Spain in the 12th century.


Factory milling installation
The first factory milling installations were built by Muslim engineers throughout every city and urban community in the Islamic world. For example, the factory milling complex in 10th century Baghdad could produce 10 tonnes of flour every day.The first large milling installations in Europe were built in 12th century Islamic Spain.


Geared and wind-powered gristmills with trip hammers
The first geared gristmills were invented by Muslim engineers in the Islamic world, and were used for grinding corn and other seeds to produce meals, and many other industrial uses such as fulling cloth, husking rice, papermaking, pulping sugarcane, and crushing metalic ores before extraction. Gristmills in the Islamic world were often made from both watermills and windmills. In order to adapt water wheels for gristmilling purposes, cams were used for raising and releasing trip hammers to fall on a material.

The first wind powered gristmills driven by windmills were built in what are now Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran in the 9th and 10th centuries.

Industrial mills
A variety of industrial mills were first invented in the Islamic world, including fulling mills, gristmills, hullers, paper mills, sawmills, stamp mills, steel mills, sugar mills, and windmills. By the 11th century, every province throughout the Islamic world had these industrial mills in operation, from al-Andalus and North Africa to the Middle East and Central Asia.

Other innovations that were unique to the Islamic world include the situation of water mills in the underground irrigation tunnels of a qanat an on the main canals of valley-floor irrigation systems.

These advances made it possible for many industrial operations that were previously driven by manual labour in ancient times to be driven by machinery instead in the Islamic world. The transfer of these technologies to medieval Europe later laid the foundations for the Industrial Revolution in 18th century Europe.


Milling dam
The milling dam was used to provide additional power for milling, which Muslim engineers called the Pul-i-Bulaiti. The first was built at Shustar on the River Karun, Iran, and many of these were later built in other parts of the Islamic world. Water was conducted from the back of the dam through a large pipe to drive a water wheel and water mill.


Paper mill
Paper was introduced into the Muslim world by Chinese prisoners after the Battle of Talas. Muslims made several improvements to papermaking and built the first paper mills in Baghdad, Iraq, as early as 794. Papermaking was transformed from an art into a major industry as a result.


Shipmill
The shipmill was a unique type of water mill powered by water wheels mounted on the sides of ships moored in midstream. This was first employed along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in 10th century Iraq, where shipmills could produce 10 tons of flour from corn every day for the granary in Baghdad.


Spiral scoop-wheel
The spiral scoop-wheel is a device which raises large quantities of water to ground level with a high degree of efficiency. This was invented in 12th century Baghdad and is still commonly used in modern Egypt.


Sugar refinery
The first sugar refineries were built by Muslim engineers.[95] They were first driven by water mills, and then windmills from the 9th and 10th centuries in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran.


Tide mill and tidal-powered machine
The tide mill, the first machine driven by tidal power, was also invented by Muslim engineers in 10th century Basra. It was first described by al-Muqaddasi in 990. Similar tide mills later appear in medieval France.


Water-powered finery forge
The first forge to be driven by a hydropowered water mill rather than manual labour, also known as a finery forge, was invented in 12th century Islamic Spain.


Water turbine
The first water turbine, which had water wheels with curved blades onto which water flow was directed axially, was first described in a 9th century Arabic text for use in a watermill.


Windmill
Windmills were first built in Sistan, Afghanistan, sometime between the 7th century and 9th century, as described by Muslim geographers. These were vertical axle windmills, which had long vertical driveshafts with rectangle shaped blades. The first windmill may have been contructed as early as the time of the second Rashidun caliph Umar (634-644 AD), though some argue that this account may have been a 10th century amendment. Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind corn and draw up water, and used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries.

The first horizontal windmills were built in what are now Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran in the 9th and 10th centuries. They had a variety of uses, such as grinding grain, pumping water, and crushing sugar-cane.


Mechanical technology

Agricultural devices
The early Muslim Arab Empire was ahead of its time regarding domestic water systems such as water cleaning systems and advanced water transportation systems resulting in better agriculture, something that helped in issues related to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence.

Al-Jazari invented a variety of machines for raising water in 1206, as well as water mills and water wheels with cams on their axle used to operate automata in the 12th century.


Artificial weather simulation
Abbas Ibn Firnas invented an artificial weather simulation room, in which spectators saw stars and clouds, and were astonished by artificial thunder and lightning. These were due to mechanisms hidden in the basement.


Automatic gate
Al-Jazari invented the earliest known automatic gates, which were driven by hydropower. He also created automatic doors as part of one of his elaborate water clocks.


Complex segmental and epicyclic gears
Segmental gears ("a piece for receiving or communicating reciprocating motion from or to a cogwheel, consisting of a sector of a circular gear, or ring, having cogs on the periphery, or face." and epicyclic gears were both first invented by the 11th century Arab engineer Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi from Islamic Spain. He employed both these types of gears in the gear trains of his mechanical clocks. Simple gears have been known before him, but this was the the first known case of complex gears used to transmit high torque.

Segmental gears were also later employed by al-Jazari in 1206. Professor Lynn Townsend White, Jr. wrote:

"Segmental gears first clearly appear in Al-Jazari, in the West they emerge in Giovanni de Dondi‘s astronomical clock finished in 1364, and only with the great Sienese engineer Francesco di Giorgio (1501) did they enter the general vocabulary of European machine design."


Crankshaft and connecting rod
Al-Jazari's invention of the crankshaft (and the crank mechanism) is considered the most important single mechanical invention after the wheel, as it transforms continuous rotary motion into a linear reciprocating motion,which is central to much of the machinery in the modern world, including the internal combustion engine and steam engine.

The connecting rod was also invented by al-Jazari, and was used in a crank and connecting rod system in a rotating machine he developed in 1206, in two of his water raising machines.


Crank-driven screw and screwpump
In ancient times, the screw and screwpump were driven by a treadwheel, but from the 12th and 13th centuries, Muslim engineers operated them using the crankshaft invented by al-Jazari.


Double-action reciprocating suction piston pump
The valve-operated reciprocating suction piston pump with crankshaft-connecting rod mechanism from a manuscript of al-Jazari, the "father of modern day engineering".
In 1206, al-Jazari demonstrates the first conversion of rotary to reciprocating motion, the first suction pipes and suction piston pump, the first use of double-action, and one of the earliest valve operations, when he invented a twin-cylinder double-action reciprocating suction piston pump, which seems to have had a direct significance in the development of modern engineering. This pump is driven by a water wheel, which drives, through a system of gears, an oscillating slot-rod to which the rods of two pistons are attached. The pistons work in horizontally opposed cylinders, each provided with valve-operated suction and delivery pipes. The delivery pipes are joined above the centre of the machine to form a single outlet into the irrigation system. This pump is remarkable for three reasons:
The earliest known use of a true suction pipe in a pump
The first application of the double-acting principle
The first conversion of rotary to reciprocating motion
For these reasons, this invention is considered important to the development of the steam engine, modern reciprocating pumps, internal combustion engine, artificial heart, bicycle, bicycle pump, etc.


Flywheel-driven chain pump and noria
A flywheel is used to smooth out the delivery of power from a driving device to a driven machine. The mechanical flywheel was first invented by Ibn Bassal (fl. 1038-1075) of Islamic Spain, who pioneered the use of the flywheel in the chain pump (saqiya) and noria.


Fountain pen
The earliest historical record of a a reservoir fountain pen dates back to the 10th century. In 953, Ma'ad al-Mu'izz, the caliph of Egypt, demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes, and was provided with a pen which held ink in a reservoir and delivered it to the nib via gravity and capillary action.


Hodometer
Abu Rayhan al-Biruni invented an early hodometer in the 11th century. This was an early example of a fixed-wired knowledge processing machine.


Mechanical singing birds
Caliph al-Mamun had a silver and golden tree in his palace in Baghdad in 827, which had the features of an automatic machine. There were metal birds that sang automatically on the swinging branches of this tree built by Muslim engineers at the time.

The Abbasid Caliph al-Muktadir also had a golden tree in his palace in Baghdad in 915, with birds on it flapping their wings and singing.

Metronome
Lynn Townsend White, Jr. wrote that Abbas Ibn Firnas was the inventor of an early metronome.

Non-wooden block printing
Printing was known as tarsh in Arabic. After woodblock printing appeared in the Islamic world, either invented independently or adopted from China, a unique variety of non-wooden block printing were invented in Islamic Egypt during the 9th-10th centuries, including print blocks made from metal, tin, stone, glass, clay, lead, and cast iron. The first printed amulets were also invented in the Islamic world, and were printed with Arabic calligraphy. Non-wooden block printing was unknown in China or Europe at the time, though it is likely that woodblock printing was transmitted to Europe from the Islamic world. Block printing later went out of use in Islamic Central Asia after movable type printing was adopted from China. Movable brass type printing also appeared in Islamic Spain by the 14th century.


On/off switch
The on/off switch, an important feedback control principle, was invented by Muslim engineers between the 9th and 12th centuries, and it was employed in a variety of automata and water clocks. The mechanism later had an influence on the development of the electric on/off switch which appeared in the 1950s.


The programmable humanoid robots of al-Jazari, the "father of robotics".
Programmable humanoid robot
Ibn Ismail Ibn al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (1136-1206) created the first recorded designs of a programmable humanoid robot in 1206. Al-Jazari's robot was originally a boat with four automatic musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties. His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bump into little levers that operate the percussion. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns if the pegs were moved around.

Six-cylinder 'Monobloc' pump
In 1559, Taqi al-Din invented a six-cylinder 'Monobloc' pump. It was a hydropowered water-raising machine incorporating valves, suction and delivery pipes, piston rods with lead weights, trip levers with pin joints, and cams on the axle of a water-driven scoop-wheel.

Steam turbine
In 1551, the Egyptian engineer Taqi al-Din described the first practical steam turbine as a prime mover for rotating a spit. In his book, Al-Turuq al-saniyya fi al-alat al-ruhaniyya (The Sublime Methods of Spiritual Machines), completed in 1551 AD (959 AH), Taqi al-Din wrote:

"Part Six: Making a spit which carries meat over fire so that it will rotate by itself without the power of an animal. This was made by people in several ways, and one of these is to have at the end of the spit a wheel with vanes, and opposite the wheel place a hollow pitcher made of copper with a closed head and full of water. Let the nozzle of the pitcher be opposite the vanes of the wheel. Kindle fire under the pitcher and steam will issue from its nozzle in a restricted form and it will turn the vane wheel. When the pitcher becomes empty of water bring close to it cold water in a basin and let the nozzle of the pitcher dip into the cold water. The heat will cause all the water in the basin to be attracted into the pitcher and the [the steam] will start rotating the vane wheel again."


Ventillator
Ventilators were invented in Egypt and were widely used in many houses throughout Cairo during the Middle Ages. These ventillators were later described in detail by Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi in 1200, who reported that almost every house in Cairo has a ventillator, and that they cost anywhere from 1 to 500 dinars depending on their sizes and shapes. Most ventillators in the city were oriented towards the Qibla, as was the city in general.


Other mechanical devices
Drawing of the self-trimming lamp in Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir's Arabic treatise on mechanical devices.
In the 9th century, the Banu Musa brothers invented a number of automata (automatic machines) and mechanical devices, and they described a hundred such devices in their Book of Ingenious Devices. Some of these inventions include:

Valve
Float valve
Feedback controller
Automatic control
Float chamber
Automatic flute player
Programmable machine
Trick devices
Hurricane lamp
Self-trimming lamp(Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Shakir)
Self-feeding lamp
Gas mask
Grab
Clamshell grab
Fail-safe system
In 1206, al-Jazari, along with his inventions above, also designed and constructed a number of other automata, such as home appliances and musical automata powered by water (see one of his works at The Automata of Al-Jazari). Al-Jazari also invented water wheels with cams on their axle used to operate automata.

Al-Jazari described over fifty mechanical devices in six different categories, most of which he invented himself, along with construction drawings. Along with his inventions above, some of the other mechanival devices he first described includes:

Combination locks
Hand washing device
Accurate calibration of orifices
Lamination of timber to reduce warping
Static balancing of wheels
Use of paper models to establish a design
Casting of metals in closed mould boxes with green sand
Trick drinking vessels
Phlebotomy measures
Linkage
Hydraulic devices
Water wheels with cams on their axle used to operate automata
Water pumps
Water level
Constructions of pots and pans for wine making
Construction of ewers and bowls for use as cups
Swimming pools and fountains
Devices able to elevate water from shallow wells or flowing rivers
Several musical instruments
Other machines working by water
Other sundry mechanisms
A number of other surviving manuscripts on mechanics and automatic machine construction are available in manuscript libraries in Istanbul, though many have not yet been read.

Glass industry
Artificial gemstone produced from high quality coloured glass, by Geber (d. 815).
Stained glass, by Muslim architects in Southwest Asia.
Silica glass and Quartz glass, and the production of glass from stone and sand, by Abbas Ibn Firnas in the 9th century.
Clear, colourless, high-purity glass, by Muslims in the 9th century.Refracting parabolic mirror, by Ibn Sahl in the 10th century.


Medical Technology

Muslim physicians pioneered a number of medical treatments, including:

Plaster by Abu al-Qasim (Abucasis) in 1000.
Tracheotomy by Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) in the 12th century.
The medical procedure of inoculation in the medieval Muslim world, later followed by the first smallpox vaccine in the form of cowpox, invented in Turkey in the early 18th century.
At least 2,000 medicinal substances.
Other medical treatments developed by Muslim physicians include:
Modern oral and inhalant anesthesia by Muslim anesthesiologists.
Surgeries under inhalant anesthesia with the use of narcotic-soaked sponges which were placed over the face, by Abu al-Qasim and Ibn Zuhr in Islamic Spain.
Medical and anesthetic use of Opium by Avicenna.
Application of purified alcohol to wounds as an antiseptic agent by Muslim physicians and surgeons in the 10th century.
Utilization of special methods for maintaining antisepsis prior to and during surgery by surgeons in Islamic Spain.
Specific protocols for maintaining hygiene during the post-operative period, in Córdoba, Spain.
Drug therapy and medicinal drugs for the treatment of specific symptoms and diseases, and the use of practical experience and careful observation, by Avicenna, al-Kindi, Ibn Rushd, Abu al-Qasim, Ibn Zuhr, Ibn Baytar, Ibn al-Jazzar, Ibn Juljul, Ibn al-Quff, Ibn al-Nafis, Al-Biruni, Ibn Sahl.
Chemotherapeutical drugs in the Muslim world.
Specific substances to destroy microbes, and the application of sulfur topically specifically to kill the scabies mite.
Medicinal-grade alcohol through distillation, and the first distillation devices for use in chemistry manufactured on a large scale, in the 10th century.
Alcohol as a solvent and antiseptic.

Medical university and public hospital
The Islamic hospital-universities were the first free public hospitals, the first medical schools, and the first universities to issue diplomas. The first of these institutions was opened in Baghdad during the time of Harun al-Rashid. They then appeared in Egypt from 872 and then in Islamic Spain, Persia and the Maghreb thereafter. Physicians and surgeons at Islamic hospital-universities gave lectures to medical students and a diploma would be issued to any student who completed his/her education and was qualified to be a doctor of Medicine.


Surgical instruments
Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), the "father of modern surgery", performed surgeries under inhalant anesthesia, and invented the plaster and many other surgical instruments.
A wide variety of surgical instruments and techniques were invented in the Muslim world, as well as the refinement of earlier instruments and techniques. The following instruments are known to have been invented by Muslim surgeons:

Hollow hypodermic needle and injection syringe by Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili (c. 1000).
Over 200 surgical instruments were listed by Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) in the Al-Tasrif (1000), many of which were never used before by any previous surgeons. Hamidan, for example, listed at least twenty six innovative surgical instruments that Abulcasis introduced.
Bone saw by Abulcasis.
Use of catgut for internal stitching, by Abulcasis.
Cautery, a special medical instrument used for the cauterization of arteries, by Abulcasis.
Ligature, by Abulcasis in the Al-Tasrif, for the blood control of arteries in lieu of cauterization.
Use of cotton (itself derived from the Arabic word qutn) as a dressing for controlling hemorrhage.
Forceps by Abulcasis in the Al-Tasrif (1000), for extracting a dead fetus.
Plaster and adhesive bandage, by Abulcasis.
Scalpel, curette, retractor, surgical spoon, sound, surgical hook, surgical rod, and specula, by Abulcasis in his Al-Tasrif (1000).
Surgical needle by Abulcasis in his Al-Tasrif.

Military technology
After the spread of early gunpowder from China to the Muslim world, Muslim chemists and engineers developed compositions for explosive gunpowder (naft in Arabic) and their own weapons for use in gunpowder warfare.

Purified potassium nitrate
Muslim chemists were the first to purify potassium nitrate (saltpetre; natrun or barud in Arabic) to the weapons-grade purity for use in gunpowder, as potassium nitrate needs to be purified to be used effectively. This purification process was first described by Ibn Bakhtawayh in his al-Muqaddimat in 1029. The first complete purification process for potassium nitrate is described in 1270 by the Arab chemist and engineer Hasan al-Rammah of Syria in his book al-Furusiyya wa al-Manasib al-Harbiyya (The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices, a.k.a. the Treatise on Horsemanship and Stratagems of War). He first described the use of potassium carbonate (in the form of wood ashes) to remove calcium and magnesium salts from the potassium nitrate.Bert S. Hall,however, disputes the efficacy of al-Rammah's formula for the purification of potassium nitrate.

Explosive gunpowder
The ideal composition for explosive gunpowder used in modern times is 75% potassium nitrate (saltpetre), 10% sulphur, and 15% carbon. Several almost identical compositions were first described by the Arab engineer Hasan al-Rammah as a recipe for the rockets (tayyar) he described in The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices in 1270. Several examples include a tayyar "rocket" (75% saltpetre, 8% sulfur, 15% carbon) and the tayyar buruq "lightning rocket" (74% saltpetre, 10% sulfur, 15% carbon). He also states recipes for fireworks and firecrackers made from these explosive gunpowder compositions. He states in his book that many of these recipes were known to his father and grandfather, hence dating back to at least the late 12th century. Compositions for an explosive gunpowder effect were not known in China or Europe until the 14th century.

Medieval French reports suggest that Muslim armies also used explosives against the Sixth Crusade army led by Ludwig IV, Landgrave of Thuringia in the 13th century.


Hand cannon, handgun, portable firearm
The first portable hand cannons (midfa) loaded with explosive gunpowder, the first example of a handgun and portable firearm, were used by the Egyptians to repel the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, and again in 1304. The gunpowder compositions used for the cannons at these battles were later described in several manuscripts in the early 14th century. According to Shams al-Din Muhammad (d. 1327), the cannons had an explosive gunpowder composition (74% saltpetre, 11% sulfur, 15% carbon) again almost identical to the ideal compositions for explosive gunpowder used in modern times.

According to research by Reinuad and Fave, the first firearms may have been developed even earlier by Muslims. In the 12th century, a primitive gun that shoots bullets, and later the Anatolian Turkish Beyliks using guns firing bullets using springs and which are audible, show that guns may have been used even earlier by Muslims in a more primitive form.

Later, the Nesri Tarihi in the 15th century states that the Ottoman army were regularly using guns and cannons from at least 1421-1422. The famous Janissary corps of the Ottoman army were using matchlock muskets as early as the 1440s.


Fireproof clothing and dissolved talc
Egyptian soldiers at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260 were the first to wear fireproof clothing and the first to smear dissolved talc on their hands, as forms of fire protection from gunpowder.


Gunpowder cartridge
Gunpowder cartridges were first employed by the Egyptians, for use in their fire lances and hand cannons against the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260.


Siege cannon
The use of cannons as siege machines dates back to Abu Yaqub Yusuf who employed them at the siege of Sijilmasa in 1274 according to Ibn Khaldun.


Ballistic war machine
In the 12th century, the Seljuqs had facilities in Sivas for manufacturing war machines. Ballistic weapons were manufactured in the Muslim world since the time of Kublai Khan in the 13th century. According to Chinese sources, two Muslim engineers, Alaaddin and Ismail (d. 1330), built machines of a ballistic-weapons nature before the besieged city of Hang-show between 1271-1273. Alaaddin's weapons also played a major role in the conquest of several other Chinese cities. His son Ma-ho-scha also developed ballistic weapons. Ismail (transliterated as I-ssu-ma-yin) was present in the Mongol siege of Hsiang-yiang, where he built a war machine with the characteristics of a ballistic weapon. Chinese sources mention that when this war machines were fired, the earth and skies shook, the cannons were buried seven feet into the ground and destroyed everything. His son Yakub also developed ballistic war machines.


Counterweight trebuchet
Ala'eddin is honoured in the official history of China's Yuan Dynasty, for having constructed the counterweight trebuchet used with gunpowder for Kublai Khan.

Torpedo
After the spread of rocket technology from China, this was followed by the invention of torpedoes in the Muslim world, and were driven by a rocket system. The works of Hasan al-Rammah in Syria in 1275 shows illustrations of a torpedo running with a rocket system filled with explosive materials and having three firing points.


Multi-barrel machine gun
Fathullah Shirazi (c. 1582), a Persian-Indian polymath and mechanical engineer who worked for Akbar the Great in the Mughal Empire, invented the earliest multi-barrel machine gun. As opposed to the repeating crossbows earlier used in China, Shirazi's multi-barrel machine gun had multiple gun barrels that fired hand cannons loaded with gunpowder.

Iron rocket artillery

Tipu Sultan invented the first iron rocket artillery in Mysore, India.
The first iron rocket artillery were developed by Tipu Sultan, a Muslim ruler of the South Indian Kingdom of Mysore. He successfully used these iron rockets against the larger forces of the British East India Company during the Anglo-Mysore Wars. The Mysore rockets of this period were much more advanced than what the British had seen, chiefly because of the use of iron tubes for holding the propellant; this enabled higher thrust and longer range for the missile (up to 2 km range). After Tipu's eventual defeat in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War and the capture of the Mysore iron rockets, they were influential in British rocket development and were soon put into use in the Napoleonic Wars.


Other weapons
Jean Mathes wrote that Muslim rulers had stockpiles of grenades, rifles, crude cannons, incendiary devices, sulfur bombs and pistols decades before such devices were used in Europe.

A 1356 copy of Alaaddin Tayboga al-Omari al-Saki al-Meliki al-Nasir's Kitab al-hiyal fi'l-hurub ve fath almada'in hifz al-durub contains descriptions on rockets, bombs, and burning fire arrows.


Navigational technology
Further information: Muslim Agricultural Revolution - Age of discovery

Baculus
The baculus, used for nautical astronomy, originates from Islamic Spain and was later used by Portuguese navigators for long-distance travel.[146]


Caravel
The origins of the caravel ship, used for long distance travel by the Spanish and Portuguese since the 15th century, date back to the qarib used by explorers from Islamic Spain in the 13th century.


Cartographic instruments
Cartographic grids in 10th century Baghdad.
Cartographic Qibla instruments, which were brass instruments with Mecca-centred world maps and cartographic grids engraved on them in the 17th century.
Cartographic Qibla instrument with a sundial and compass attached to it,by Muhammad Husayn in the 17th century.

Compass rose
The Arabs invented the 32-point compass rose during the Middle Ages.


Kamal
Muslim navigators invented a rudimentary sextant known as a kamal, used for celestial navigation and for measuring the altitudes and latitudes of the stars.


Lateen
Muslim sailors were responsible for introducing the lateen sails to the Mediterranean Sea.

Three-masted merchant vessel
Muslim sailors were responsible for introducing the large three-masted merchant vessels to the Mediterranean Sea.


Other invention
Fielding H. Garrison wrote in the History of Medicine:

"The Saracens themselves were the originators not only of algebra, chemistry, and geology, but of many of the so-called improvements or refinements of civilization, such as street lamps, window-panes, firework, stringed instruments, cultivated fruits, perfumes, spices, etc..."

Other inventions from the Islamic world include:

Frequency analysis, cryptanalysis, three-course meal, the Persian carpet, the modern cheque.
An early system of air mail utilizing homing pigeons (by Fatimid Caliph Aziz), advances in the field of optics, musical theory, and certain irrigation techniques.

Graph paper and orthogonal grids
The first known use of graph paper dates back to the medieval Islamic world, where weavers often carefully drew and encoded their patterns onto graph paper prior to weaving. Islamic quadrants used for various astronomical and timekeeping purposes from the 10th century also introduced markings and orthogonal or regular grids that are still identical to modern graph paper.


Scientific institutions
A number of important scientific institutions previously unknown in the ancient world have their origins in the medieval Islamic world, with the most notable examples being:

The public hospital (which replaced healing temples and sleep temples)
The psychiatric hospital
The public library and lending library
The academic degree-granting university
The astronomical observatory as a research institute (as opposed to an observation post as was the case in ancient times)
The trust institution

suara hati
SERSAN MAYOR
SERSAN MAYOR

Male
Posts : 288
Kepercayaan : Islam
Location : Medan
Join date : 29.11.12
Reputation : 5

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by Andi Cactusa on Thu Jan 17, 2013 12:09 pm

@isaku wrote:terima kasih infonya, ini menjelaskan banyak hal... rupanya tidak terlalu berlebihan di pertemuan pertama, sy menyebut anda pembenci... info inipun menjelaskan darimana anda belajar mencaci, bermulut kotor, lbh menyukai flaming dibanding diskusi sehat...
...Jangan anda “sunat” dengan menjuluki saya “pembenci” saja, tetapi tulis lengkap “pembenci Islam”. Tunjukkan di mana saya bermulut kotor tidak berdasar, lebih menyukai flamming dibanding diskusi sehat. Jangan asal melemparkan tuduhan saja! Justru jeneralisasi seperti itu yang termasuk cara berdebat atau berdiskusi yang tidak fair dan tidak sehat.
@suara hati wrote:paradoks.....
1. belum pernah membedakan orang tapi meludahi para imam
2. hanya agama Islam yang melarang umatnya mencintai non-muslim tetapi saya dan para sahabat muslim saya tetap saling mengasihi
...Semoga saya tidak salah tangkap maksud kalimat anda, sehingga tanggapan saya pun properly.
1. Apa sebenarnya maksud kalimat anda? Apa kalau imam yang menyuruh saya jangan rasional akan saya ludahi, sedang kalau pendeta tidak? Kalau itu maksud anda, anda jelas salah. Pendeta, pastor, biksu, dan entah siapa pun yang menyuruh saya membuang rasionalitas saya, akan saya ludahi!
2. Yang kedua ini juga kurang jelas bagi saya. Bisa saja para sahabat muslim saya itu tidak mengetahui atau tidak mengindahkan perintah Muhammad. Sehingga dengan tulus mengasihi saya. Dan itu sangat saya syukuri. Bagi saya sendiri tidak ada halangan atau larangan untuk mencintai semua orang.
@Andi Cactusa wrote:Membujuk (to persuade) muslim meninggalkan Islam
@suara hati wrote:sy menyediakan diri sy u/ dibujuk... silahkan
...Terima kasih atas kesediaan anda. Yang mungkin bisa saya persuade hanyalah yang bersedia menggunakan otaknya. Juga harap kita ingat dan sadari, bahwa anda sama saja dengan saya, tidak lebih penting dari manusia lainnya di forum ini.
avatar
Andi Cactusa
LETNAN DUA
LETNAN DUA

Male
Posts : 784
Kepercayaan : Protestan
Location : Jakarta
Join date : 08.10.12
Reputation : 30

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by Andi Cactusa on Thu Jan 17, 2013 1:20 pm

...Berikut ini adalah respons saya terhadap tiga postingan bung suara hati sekaligus.
@suara hati wrote:Kumpulan para ilmuwan muslim yang secara langsung dan tidak langsung berperan dalam proses invention, pada masa itu pihak Kristen masih tidur pulas...

Sumber link :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_science_and_engineering_in_the_Islamic_world#12th_century

8th century

770–840–[mathematics] Khwarizmi (Persian: خوارزمی‎ Khwarazmi, in Arabic became الخوارزمي al-Khwarizmi, Latinized name,Algorithm). Developed the "calculus of resolution and juxtaposition" (hisab al-jabr w'al-muqabala), more briefly referred to as al-jabr, or algebra......
@suara hati wrote:Ilustrasi peluncuran roket di abad 17 atau 1633 zaman Lagari Hasan Celeby (Turki) :
@suara hati wrote:Diambil dari link : http://metaexistence.org/inventions.htm

Inventions in the Islamic World
Islamic Astronomy: Astronomical instruments

Muslim astronomers developed a number of astronomical instruments, including several variations of the astrolabe, originally invented by Hipparchus in the 2nd century BCE, but with considerable improvements made to the device in the Muslim world. These instruments were used by Muslims for a variety of purposes related to astronomy, astrology, horoscopes, navigation, surveying, timekeeping, Qibla, Salah, etc......
...Silahkan anda kutip dari bermacam-macam sumber sebanyak mungkin. Tetapi saya menyadari tidak in position to judge semua yang anda kemukakan itu. Saya tetap lebih bersandar pada Encyclopædia Britannica, yang otoritasnya sudah diakui oleh masyarakat internasional. Kiranya lebih tepat anda ajukan ke situs tersebut: Great Inventions -- Great Inventors, WHAT WERE THE GREATEST INVENTIONS OF ALL TIME? Here is the Encyclopædia Britannica's list for--The Greatest Inventions of All Times (http://www.edinformatics.com/inventions_inventors/)
...Ada satu pertanyaan, bung suara hati. Apakah ada atau besar andil muslim dalam semua inovasi yang menyangkut listrik? Yang pasti, listrik tidak ada hubungannya dengan jaman keemasan Islam yang anda banggakan itu. Tolong anda perkirakan besar kecilnya peranan atau pengaruh listrik dalam peradaban manusia modern ini.
...Satu catatan kecil: Di pulau Jawa, mengatakan “kamu” kepada lawan bicara/debat dinilai kurang sopan.
avatar
Andi Cactusa
LETNAN DUA
LETNAN DUA

Male
Posts : 784
Kepercayaan : Protestan
Location : Jakarta
Join date : 08.10.12
Reputation : 30

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by suara hati on Thu Jan 17, 2013 2:07 pm

@Andi Cactusa wrote:
Satu catatan kecil: Di pulau Jawa, mengatakan “kamu” kepada lawan bicara/debat dinilai kurang sopan.
Bisa aku sesuaikan,,,sebagai perkenalan tidak langsung...aku dari Medan.

Note : Kata "aku" diganti "saya"
Kata "kamu" diganti "anda"...ok ?

@Andi Cactusa wrote:
Silahkan anda kutip dari bermacam-macam sumber sebanyak mungkin. Tetapi saya menyadari tidak in position to judge semua yang anda kemukakan itu. Saya tetap lebih bersandar pada Encyclopædia Britannica, yang otoritasnya sudah diakui oleh masyarakat internasional.
Itu terserah anda, tapi saya sudah menampilkan keadaan yang menurut saya 'mendekati kenyataan'.
Dari versi Encyclopedia Britannica yang anda usulkan, saya sudah beri tanggapan di #33.

Jadi umat Islam pada suatu waktu dalam sejarah, terlibat dalam proses kreatif, yang ujung nya dikembangkan pihak lain.




suara hati
SERSAN MAYOR
SERSAN MAYOR

Male
Posts : 288
Kepercayaan : Islam
Location : Medan
Join date : 29.11.12
Reputation : 5

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by suara hati on Thu Jan 17, 2013 2:15 pm

Dari Enclycopedia Britanica ( yang jadi sandaran bung Andi Cactusa ) nih...

Al Jazari
al-Jazarī, (flourished c. 1206), Muslim inventor. He is remembered for his automaton designs, including water-operated automatons, many of which were moving peacocks. Most are decorative fanciful objects, though some also serve a function. Leonardo da Vinci is said to have been influenced by the classic automatons of al-Jazarī.
Sumber http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/301961/al-Jazari

Dari buku "How Islam Created the Modern World" by Mark Graham.
Keterangan pada cover nya :
In the Middle Ages, while Europe was mired in superstition and feudal chaos, Baghdad was the intellectual center of the world. It was there that an army of translators and scholars took the wisdom of the Greeks and combined it with their own cultural traditions to create a scientific, mathematical and philosophical golden age. Their accomplishments were staggering, including the development of modern medicine, chemistry, and algebra. Muslim scientists correctly calculated the circumference of the globe in the tenth century. Muslim musicians introduced the guitar and musical notation to the Europe. And Muslim philosophers invented the scientific method and paved the way for the Enlightenment. At the dawn of the Renaissance, Christian Europe was wearing Persian clothes, singing Arab songs, reading Spanish Muslim philosophy and eating off Mamluk Turkish brassware. This is the story of how Muslims taught Europe to live well and think clearly. It is the story of how Islam created the Modern World.

Saya terjemahkan secara bebas yang digaris bawahi : Ini adalah cerita tentang bagaimana muslim mengajari Eropa tentang bagaimana hidup lebih baik. Juga tentang kisah bagaimana Islam menciptakan dunia modern.

Sumber :
http://www.amazon.com/How-Islam-Created-Modern-World/dp/1590080432/ref=pd_sim_b_3

suara hati
SERSAN MAYOR
SERSAN MAYOR

Male
Posts : 288
Kepercayaan : Islam
Location : Medan
Join date : 29.11.12
Reputation : 5

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by suara hati on Thu Jan 17, 2013 2:46 pm

@Andi Cactusa wrote:
Ada satu pertanyaan, bung suara hati. Apakah ada atau besar andil muslim dalam semua inovasi yang menyangkut listrik? Yang pasti, listrik tidak ada hubungannya dengan jaman keemasan Islam yang anda banggakan itu.

French Orientalist Dr. Gustav Lebon said:

"It must be remembered that no science, either of chemistry or any other science, was discovered all of a sudden. The Muslims had established one thousand years ago their laboratories in which they used to make experiments and publish their discoveries without which Lavoisier (accredited by some as being the founder of chemistry) would not have been able to produce anything in this field. It can be said without the fear of contradiction that owing to the researches and experimentation of Muslim scientists modern chemistry came into being and that it produced great results in the form of great scientific inventions, viz, steam, the electricity, the telegraph, the telephone, the radio, the photography, the cinematography and so on."

Waduh...saya terjemahin pake google aja ya :
"Harus diingat bahwa tidak ada ilmu, baik kimia atau ilmu lainnya, ditemukan tiba-tiba. Muslim telah mendirikan seribu tahun yang lalu laboratorium mereka di mana mereka digunakan untuk membuat eksperimen dan mempublikasikan penemuan mereka tanpa yang Lavoisier (terakreditasi oleh beberapa sebagai pendiri kimia) tidak akan mampu menghasilkan apa-apa dalam bidang ini. dapat dikatakan tanpa takut kontradiksi bahwa berkat penelitian dan eksperimen ilmuwan Muslim kimia modern muncul menjadi ada dan yang dihasilkan besar hasil dalam bentuk penemuan-penemuan ilmiah yang besar, yaitu, uap, listrik, telegraf, telepon, radio, fotografi, sinematografi, dan sebagainya. "

Sumber :
http://www.sciforums.com/Famous-Muslim-Inventions-Scientific-Breakthroughs-t-39619.html

suara hati
SERSAN MAYOR
SERSAN MAYOR

Male
Posts : 288
Kepercayaan : Islam
Location : Medan
Join date : 29.11.12
Reputation : 5

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by abu hanan on Thu Jan 17, 2013 3:13 pm

@Andi Cactusa wrote:@Bung Abu Hanan,

...Bila anda meng-invents suatu yang diilhami oleh pemikiran orang lain, dan kemudian mendaftarkannya ke Direktorat Paten, anda tidak akan diminta atau diharuskan untuk menjelaskan ide itu dari mana.
...Siapa kah yang lebih pantas dikagumi: Anda atau yang mengilhami anda itu? Kelihatannya anda ingin memaksakan bahwa kita harus lebih mengagumi inspirator si muslim (anggap benar demikian!) yang tidak bisa mewujudkan idenya menjadi suatu inovasi. Sungguh aneh atau lucu jalan pikiran anda!
...Tetapi bila itu memuaskan libido anda dan muslim lainnya, silahkan saja! Yang saya tahu, jalan pikiran dan sikap seperti itu tidak akan membawa anda ke mana-mana.

Tambahan: Tulisan di atas untuk bung Suara Hati juga, yang memiliki pola pikir yang sama dengan bung Abu Hanan.
mas...para pendahulu seperti aristoteles dan lainnyah gak bakal mikir dan mungkin gak kepikir untuk mematenkan intelektual mereka tetapi jujur sayah harus katakan bahwa para intelek muslim di masa lalu pun BOLEH JADI mengembangkan tulisan/pemikiran2 masa pra islam..dan hal tersebut berlangsung terus hingga abad pertengahan yah kurang lebih jaman revolusi industrilah...jika sejarah telah membuktikan angka 0 dari kreatifitas muslim dan angka itu dipergunakan hingga sekarang,apakah sayah akan menolak?gak lah...tetapi sayah bisa mengakui bahwa peran non muslim dalam mengembangkan teknologi memang ada dan harus dinyatakan ada karena faktanya ada..apabila kita berhenti di taun 1500 (misal)..dan sejumlah temuan/pengembangan teknologi di mulai saat itu kok rasanyah janggal karena manusia selalu mengadakan evolusi dalam pengetahuan..



untuk orang yang memaafkan walaupun ia mampu membalas
maka kembalilah kepada Tuhanmu dengan hati yang luas
avatar
abu hanan
GLOBAL MODERATOR
GLOBAL MODERATOR

Male
Age : 83
Posts : 7999
Kepercayaan : Islam
Location : soerabaia
Join date : 06.10.11
Reputation : 219

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by Andi Cactusa on Thu Jan 17, 2013 7:19 pm

...Berikut ini adalah respons bagi semua postingan bung Suara Hati dan bung Abu Hanan yang belum saya tanggapi.
@suara hati wrote:Jadi umat Islam pada suatu waktu dalam sejarah, terlibat dalam proses kreatif, yang ujung nya dikembangkan pihak lain.
...Kalau mengikuti jalan pikiran anda, maka kehebatan umat Islam yang anda banggakan itu juga bisa ada karena kehebatan manusia sebelum lahirnya Islam.
...Wikipedia misalnya menulis awal sejarah listrik di Mesir Kuno (2750 BC), ketika orang mempertanyakan sengatan "ikan listrik" yang dijuluki "Thunderer of the Nile," dan digambarkan sebagai "pelindung" semua ikan. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity). Tetapi cobalah jelajahi situs-situs "Sejarah Listrik" atau "History of Electricity" apakah di situ ada nama-nama muslim yang dianggap sangat penting. Demikian pula menyangkut inovasi berbasis listrik.
...Saya kira justru jauh lebih penting mempertanyakan: Mengapa sebelum era Islam ada 10 inovasi besar dari Timur Tengah dan Turki (menurut catatan Ency Brit), tetapi setelah Islam lahir hingga sekarang, kok malah tidak ada lagi?
avatar
Andi Cactusa
LETNAN DUA
LETNAN DUA

Male
Posts : 784
Kepercayaan : Protestan
Location : Jakarta
Join date : 08.10.12
Reputation : 30

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by suara hati on Fri Jan 18, 2013 8:31 am

@Andi Cactusa wrote:
Kalau mengikuti jalan pikiran anda, maka kehebatan umat Islam yang anda banggakan itu juga bisa ada karena kehebatan manusia sebelum lahirnya Islam.
...
...
Saya kira justru jauh lebih penting mempertanyakan: Mengapa sebelum era Islam ada 10 inovasi besar dari Timur Tengah dan Turki (menurut catatan Ency Brit), tetapi setelah Islam lahir hingga sekarang, kok malah tidak ada lagi?
Benar bahwa Islam bukan yang pertama dalam sejarah keilmuan manusia...dan kenyataan juga bahwa Islam bukan umat pertama yang muncul...! Duluan ada keilmuan yang dipelopori Cina atau Yunani...bahkan duluan agama Kristen muncul (yang belakangan belajar dari muslim). Nah...Islam tampil menyesuaikan dengan timing nya. Mempelajari,menerjemahkan dan mengembangkan ilmu manusia sebelumnya (misal Cina atau Yunani)...dan kemudian diteruskan oleh umat didepannya yaitu mis : Eropa Kristen.

Tentang 10 inovasi itu, saya belum bisa jawab..apakah itu masalah record yang hilang atau belum tampil atau hidden atau apa...saya belum tahu.

Tapi berdasar banyak penulis baik muslim maupun non muslim, peran Islam terhadap kebangkitan Ilmu (sangat termasuk Eropa)...sangat besar. Itulah mengapa saya tidak sefaham dengan pendapat miring bahwa Islam itu tidak kreatif atau iklim Islam itu tidak kondusif.

Akan mundur nya dunia Islam dari panggung ilmu...bisa ditinjau dari banyak titik yang kompleks, mulai dari isu isu penafsiran internal dan sebagainya.

suara hati
SERSAN MAYOR
SERSAN MAYOR

Male
Posts : 288
Kepercayaan : Islam
Location : Medan
Join date : 29.11.12
Reputation : 5

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by jakajayagiri-2 on Fri Jan 18, 2013 12:21 pm

@suara hati wrote:.................saya tidak sefaham dengan pendapat miring bahwa Islam itu tidak kreatif atau iklim Islam itu tidak kondusif.
Akan mundur nya dunia Islam dari panggung ilmu...bisa ditinjau dari banyak titik yang kompleks, mulai dari isu isu penafsiran internal dan sebagainya.
Pernyataan Anda yg saya bold, itulah bukti bahwa islam memang tidak kondusif bagi berkembangnya kreativitas dan keilmuan.

jakajayagiri-2
LETNAN DUA
LETNAN DUA

Male
Posts : 995
Kepercayaan : Protestan
Location : bandung
Join date : 04.09.12
Reputation : 27

Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Re: Islam dan Kreativitas

Post by Sponsored content


Sponsored content


Kembali Ke Atas Go down

Halaman 2 dari 4 Previous  1, 2, 3, 4  Next

Topik sebelumnya Topik selanjutnya Kembali Ke Atas

- Similar topics

Permissions in this forum:
Anda tidak dapat menjawab topik