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Asal Muasal Dongeng Nenek Sihir & Pembakaran Tukang Sihir dalam Sejarah553

Asal Muasal Dongeng Nenek Sihir & Pembakaran Tukang Sihir dalam Sejarah

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Asal Muasal Dongeng Nenek Sihir & Pembakaran Tukang Sihir dalam Sejarah

Post by Penyaran on Sat Apr 27, 2013 1:57 pm

di Eropa jaman dulu, pendeta-pendeta perempuan bukan dari agama Kristen, tetapi dari agama Pagan (druid). Tetapi pendeta-pendeta Pagan tersebut malah dijelek-jelekkan dan disebut sebagai "nenek sihir" dalam rangka persaingan yang tidak sehat.

Tak heran, saat ini terdapat situs semacam Faith Freedom yang suka menjelek-jelekkan keyakinan orang lain. Jika jaman dulu agama Pagan yang dijelek-jelekin dan dicap tukang sihir, Jaman sekarang agama Islam yang dijelek-jelekin dan dicap teroris

Witches: The Legacy of the Druidesses

After the downfall of traditional Druidism, the myth of the witch became even more popular. The myth of witch cults had existed during the time of Celtic Paganism, but its source lied more with the Pagan rituals and traditions of sorcery. After Christianity became the main religion on the British Isles witches became synonymous with the work of the devil. Ellis, a Celtic Scholar believes that "female druids have become reduced in [old Celtic] stories to witch-like figures" (Ellis, Celtic Women, p.221) since the onset of Christianity.

Archeological evidence that "female magicians or witches" existed in on the outskirts of Pagan Celtic religion are strong. The Larzac stone which dates to about 100 AD shows the existence of rival bands of witches while graves excavated in a Romano-British cemetery show that the treatment of these women was very different from that of female Druids. Lankhills and Winchester cemeteries contain burials of old women dating to about the 4th c. AD (Green, p.98). Before being placed in their graves, these women’s heads were decapitated and their heads were placed by their legs (Green, p.98). One could speculate many things about this occurrence. The Celtic people may have wished to separate their spirits from their bodies or to celebrate the significance of the severed head which in battle meant victory, but in this case could have shown victory over their evil magic. However, this ritual also might have been preformed in order to ease their way to the underworld.

In some cases these "witches" not only had their heads decapitated, but their lower jaws were removed completely. Green speculates that the jaws might have been removed in order to keep them from casting spells on the living after death (Green, p.99). Some graves also contained a spinal whorl, a woven string of threads and a symbol of fate and destiny in both Classical and Celtic religions. They refer to the Gaulish and Roman Mother-Goddess who could predict life and death and end it simply by snapping a tread (Green, p.99). These symbols might have signified that these women held such a power in the eyes of their contemporary people as the Celtic Saga of Conaran which tells of three sorceress daughters who ensnared people by spinning a magical web shows that spinning held special significance and various elements at the time.

With the spread of Christianity, Christians dubbed female Druids as witches in order to make their power seem evil such as the witches of ancient times to the native Celtic people. The Christians feared the Druids and Druidesses not only because they were a source of great religious power and the center of knowledge for their people, but also many of them preached strongly against conversion to Christianity (Ellis, The Druids, p.72). Consequently, the Christians began to write down information, which put Druids and Druidesses in a bad light and helped perpetuate their ultimate downfall.

In Medieval times Christians altered stories Druidess heroines to evil witches. In this manner, the Christians effectively began to sway the opinion of the clergy and the people that knowledgeable women and the Druid order itself were wicked. Such stories such as Dahud-Ahes, daughter of the six century king Kernev, whom Ellis says was "undoubtedly a Druidess adhering to the old religion, [and] who [was] then transformed into a sorceress by Christian scribes" (Ellis, The Druids, p.104). She was strongly opposed to Christianity, and therefore her city of Ker-Ys was destroyed by a flood and she was turned into a mermaid "as she sinks beneath the waves, proving that [St. Guénolé's] magic is just as good as any Druid['s]" (Ellis, The Druids, p.104). Professor Markle states:

Apart from representing paganism in opposition to Christianity, however, she [Dahud-Ahes] also symbolizes the rebellion against masculine authority...The full significance of this act becomes clear when one considers her dissolute life as contrary to the teachings of the Christian Church, here represented by St Gwénnolé, himself the very symbol of masculine authority (Ellis, The Druids, p.104).

However, it is interesting to note that in Ker-Ys today, the myth places Duhad-Ahes] as a "good witch" (Ellis, The Druids, p.104).

The manipulation of literature, which made powerful women into evil creatures only, furthered the fall of Druidism and the place of women in Celtic society.

http://www.unc.edu/celtic/catalogue/femdruids/Witches.html

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Re: Asal Muasal Dongeng Nenek Sihir & Pembakaran Tukang Sihir dalam Sejarah

Post by Penyaran on Sat Apr 27, 2013 2:05 pm

The Fall of the Druidesses

During the first half of the first century CE, the Roman emperors Tiberius and Claudius attempted to restrain the Druids. Although Druidic worship was generally unaffected during this period, Druids are mentioned less and less in textual sources. Occasionally Druids and Druidesses are mentioned as "freelance seers," and an innkeeper Druidess is said to have prophesied the empowerment of Diocletian at this time. As assimilation became a priority of the Roman soldiers during their occupation of southern Britain, the Druids were increasingly attacked since they were often the source of rebellion. In In order to assimilate the Britons to a more Roman way of life, the Romans struck at the center of Celtic intellectualism. "Both Claudius and Tiberius attempted to stamp out the ‘religion of the Druids,’ and the altars for the "savage superstition’ of human sacrifice were destroyed, but we do not hear details a general persecution" (Jones, p.85). The accusations of 'savage superstition' was a common charge against any enemy of the Roman way of life.

In Ireland, worship of the Irish gods remained strong. The Druids tolerated Christians and in 438 CE, the High King Laighaire, held a conference at Tara to discuss religion. Three Behona, Pagan "law-speakers" as well as kings, along with three Christian missionaries drew up the Seanchus Mór, which mixed Christian and Pagan law. This code of law lasted till the seventeenth century until English law took over (Jones, p.99). However, the last Pagan king, Diarmat, died in 565 CE and official Celtic worship is mentioned no more (Jones, p.101).

The Roman’s view of "women as the bearers of children and objects of pleasure" changed Celtic society from a ‘mother goddess’ society into a patriarchal society during initial encounters with Roman society (Ellis, The Druids, p.95). The Romans culture slowly impressed itself onto Celtic society. Roman officials often refused to deal with women rulers and in the case of Boudica, they invaded her kingdom on this account. Women rulers as well as Druidesses were seen as a target for extermination. It is possible that this is because in many cases they were one and the same.

The introduction of the Christian religion was the final blow that ended the equalitarianism of Celtic society. "When the Celts began to accept Christianity, Celtic women, as they had been in Pagan times were equal with men in preaching religion" (Ellis, Celtic Women, p.142). It is possible that although manu Druids and Druidesses were opposed to conversion to Christianity, some might have joined the Church. As a result women had little problems obtaining high level positions since the old religion had clearly accepted women as equals. In fact evidence shows that in the 5th century, the Irish Catholic Church ordained two women Bishops, Bridget of Kildare and Beoferlic of the Celtic Church in Northumbria and that they preformed mass and gave the sacrament.

The three Roman bishops at Tours objected profusely to them and wrote to two Breton priests between 515 to 520 CE objecting to their participation in the giving of the sacrament (Ellis, Celtic Women, p.142). When communication with Rome increased and mainland European missionaries began to come to the British Isles, the Church began to reject women from entering its ranks. Women were finally pushed out of the priestly order during the Middle Ages and diminished to the roles of nun and abbess. "Female Druids [became] reduced in the [ancient] stories to witch-like figures" (Ellis, Celtic Women, p.221). As a result by the High Middle Ages women could neither rule a kingdom or serve in a position of authority in the Church. Women's high status had been effectively wiped out by the two 'invasions' and women became like ancient Roman women, possesions of their men.

http://www.unc.edu/celtic/catalogue/femdruids/FalloftheDruidesses.html

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Re: Asal Muasal Dongeng Nenek Sihir & Pembakaran Tukang Sihir dalam Sejarah

Post by Penyaran on Sat Apr 27, 2013 2:09 pm

Yang lebih kejam lagi adalah pembakaran penyihir, yaitu wanita-wanita yang dianggap penyihir dibakar hidup-hidup. Contoh kasus sejarah yang cukup terkenal adalah Salem's Witch Burning, yang terjadi di Amerika di saat daerah itu masih berstatus koloni Inggris.

Salem terletak di Massachusetts, pantai timur Amerika. Saat itu Massachusetts masih berupa koloni Inggris kalau nggak salah.

Sedangkan kasus di Skotlandia, perempuan yang dibakar adalah perempuan tua. Kasihan wanita tua yang dituduh nenek sihir itu.

Witch Hunts

Perhaps one of the worst atrocities ever committed by any religion is the witch hunt that plagued Europe from the thirteenth to the eighteenth century. The death toll due to the witch-hunts in Europe is hard to estimate, the various estimates varied from between one hundred thousand to two million people. Phyllis Graham, a camelite nun turned atheist, was right when she said that "bearing in mind the small population of those times [the number of deaths from the witch-hunts] ... is well in proportion to Hitler's six million Jews." [1] We will leave the subject of witch-hunting with these words from J.M. Robertson:
If the merits of Christianity as a civilizing force are to be in any way determined by its influence in avoiding bloodshed; its record in the matter of witch-slaying alone serve to place it, in that regard, lower than any other creed. [2]

The Origins of the Witch Hunts

Fresh from the holy victory over the Albigenses, the Inquisition turned towards the other mortal enemy of religion, witches. The witch hunt of the fifteenth through the eighteenth century is a testament of a faith gone mad. Christianity and its world view was the main cause of this bloodbath. We find in the New Testament the denunciation of witchcraft by Paul:
Galatians 5:19
Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, witchcraft...

Having determined that witchcraft was sinful, the Bible prescribed a method for dealing with witches:

Exodus 22:18
Thou shall not suffer a witch to live.

Surely this verse is a strong candidate for the passage in the Bible that has caused the most misery. [a] In other words it is telling Christians that witches should not be allowed to live. This Christian duty of witch extermination could not long have alluded the pious ones. With the Albigensian heresy extirpated by the Inquisition, the Roman Church decided to put the ecclesiastical tribunal to good use. Alhough there were already sporadic witch hunts and the execution of witches from the time of Pope Pope Gregory IX (c.1148-1241), it did not intensity until the papal bull of 1484. [3] And so it was in 1484 that Pope Innocent VIII (d.1492) issued the Witches' Bull which condemned witchcraft and ordered the punishment of witches. His bull declared the absolute reality of witches and it became a heresy to even doubt the existence of witches. To ensure that his bull was put into action, he appointed two inquisitors, Jakob Sprenger and Heinrich Kramer. They certainly had the necessary religious credentials, as both were Dominican monks. Furthermore, Sprenger was a great promoter of the rosary. [4]

In 1487, Sprenger and Kramer published the book Malleus Maleficarum (The Hammer of Witches), a theological encyclopedia on witchcraft. The book started with reasserting the biblical and traditional support for the reality of witchcraft. For biblical support, passages such as the two quote above were expounded on. For traditional support, the authors cited the authority of St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), the "Angelic Doctor". Aquinas had stated that unbelief in the existence of witches, who are "known" to have sexual intercourse with the devil, stems from the crime of atheism. It was an explanation most Christians as that time would have agreed with. Sprenger and Kramer added that unbelief in witchcraft by a Christian constitutes heresy and was punishable as such. In fact on the title page of Hammer, a statement reads: Haereses est maxima opera maleficarum non credere ("To disbelieve witchcraft is the greatest of heresies").

Having established the reality witchcraft, this gruesome twosome went on to describe witches and their crimes. Witches, they asserted, were guilty of copulation with the devil, assembling at sabbats, preventing the conception of babies and causing practically every conceivable misfortune: from hailstorms and loss of cattle and crops to causing illness and insanity. They then went on to describe how witches are to be detected, tried, tortured and executed. [5] Their method of detection deserves mention here. To detect witches the holy inquisitors recommended method was to first stripped the victim and shaved them of all body hair and a search made for the "devils mark". This mark, also known as the “witches tit” and is the supposed third nipple with which these women suckled demons. This tit could turn out to be anything, a mole, a wart or even the clitoris! When a suspicious mark is, invariably, found, it was tested by prickling with a sharp object. If the mark was found to be insensitive to pain, it was taken as proof that the “devil’s mark” has been found. [6]

Armed with the papal bull on one hand and the Hammer of Witches on the other, the Christian soldiers marched onward to exterminate another heresy. The witch-hunt was instituted almost everywhere in Europe: in Germany, France, Spain, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland, Sweden, England and Scotland; it even spilled over to the American colony, in Salem, Massachusetts.

The Methods of Torture

The inquisitors throughout Europe put into practice the theory of Sprenger and Kramer. The methods used in the persecution of suspected witches were filled with unparalleled cruelty. Anyone accused of witchcraft is first ask to confess to the crime. Should he, or more often, she, refuse to confess (it never occurred to the inquisitors that an innocent person will refuse to confess), the suspect will be tortured until a confession is abstracted. And after the confession the victim is then tortured further to implicate others. Should, at any time, the victim retract the original confession, he or she is tortured all the more until the earlier confession is reaffirmed. Having confessed and named other witches, the accused is then burnt at the stake. If a person accused for witchcraft refused to confess to the crime after repeated tortures, he or she will be burnt at the stake anyway; if not for the crime of witchcraft, then for their stubbornness! [7]
A wide gulf separates the modern psyche from the events of the inquisition and witch-hunting. It is important to get an insight, a feel, of how much suffering the people accused of witchcraft went through. With that in mind, we will look at the events of the "trial" of Else Gwinner of the city of Offenberg in Germany.

Else Gwinner was arrested for witchcraft in the 31st of October 1601 after being accused of the crime by two women who were themselves convicted of the same. Both the accusations and their implication of Else were abstracted under torture. When she was brought before the inquisitor, Else denied the charges and asserted her innocence. She was told to spare herself unnecessary suffering and to simply confess her crime. She refused.

The systematic torture then commenced. The first torture was known as the strappado. Her hands were tied to her back and her wrists were fastened with a rope. With this rope she was repeatedly hoisted off the ground to solicit her confession. However, it succeeded only in making her unconscious. She was then sent back to her prison cell. A week later the strappado was again applied but this time with heavier weights attached to her body. The torture was repeated three times. On the third time, Else screamed in pain and finally agreed to confess. When they let her down she admitted to having sexual relations with the devil. Eager to know more details the inquisitors ordered her to be hoisted up again. This time even more weight was attached to her body. When they let her down, she retracted her confession and protested her innocence saying that she had lied earlier to escape the suffering.

Meanwhile Else's daughter, Agathe, who was also accused of witchcraft, had named her mother as a witch under torture. This increased the inquisitors' resolve to extract the confession direct from Else. She was then tortured with thumbscrews, another common equipment for torture. As the screws were tighten onto her fingers, she bravely protested her innocence, but the pain became so unbearable that she fainted. Every time she fainted, the holy inquisitors sprinkled her face with water to wake her up.

On the 11th of December 1601, fifty two days after the first torture commenced, she confessed to the crime of witchcraft. Her confession, however, was not enough for the inquisitors; they demanded that she named other witches. Her spirit broken, Else named two and promised to reveal more. However, two days later, she again reasserted her innocence and refused to make the final oath of confession. The inquisitors threatened her with further torture, this time Else remained steadfast and retracted the names of the two people she had implicated. On the 21st of December, the inquisitors ordered Else Gwinner to be burnt at the stake. She died, without finally confessing that she was a witch. [8]

The strappado and thumbscrews did not exhaust the ingenuity of the inquisitors. An eyewitness of the tortures, Johann Matthaus Meyfarth, wrote of the barbarism he saw in the prisons:

I have seen limbs torn asunder, the eyes driven out of the head, the feet torn from the legs, the sinews twisted from the joints, the shoulder blades wrung from their place, the deep vein swollen, the superficial veins driven in, the victim hoisted aloft and now dropped, now revolved around, head undermost and feet uppermost. I have seen the executioner flog with the scourge, and smite with rods, and crush with screws and load down with weights, and stick with needles, and bind around with cords, and burn with brimstone, and baste with oil and singe with tortures. In short, I can bear witness, I can describe, I can deplore how the human body is violated. [9]

A personal account of the physical and emotional pain that an accused person go through can be glimpsed from the following letter. It was written by a man named Johannes Junius, from the city of Bamberg, Germany, who under repeated torture had finally confessed to witchcraft. The letter was written for his daughter while he was awaiting execution.

Many hundred thousand goodnights, dearly beloved daughter Veronica. Innocent I have come to prison, innocent have I been tortured, innocent must I die. For whosoever comes into the witch prison must be a witch or be tortured until he invents something out of his head ... I will tell you how it has gone to me ... the executioner ... put the thumbscrews on me, that blood ran out at the nails and everywhere. So that for four weeks I could not use my hands as you can see from my writing ... Thereafter the stripped me, bound my hands behind me, and drew me up in torture. Then I thought heaven and earth were at an end; eight times did they draw me up and let me fall again, so that I suffered a terrible agony. The executioner said, "Sir, I beg you for God's sake confess something, whether it be true or not, for you cannot endure the torture which you will be put to, and even if you bear it all, yet you will not escape" ... [He then explained the confession he gave] Now my dear child you have all my confession, for which I must die. And they are sheer lies and made up things, so help me God. For all this I was forced to say through fear of torture which was threatened beyond what I had endured. For they never leave off with the torture till one confesses something, be he ever so good, he must be a witch. Nobody escapes ...[10]

Germany

Germany was definitely the worst victim of the witch-hunt. In some districts of Rhineland, not a woman over forty was left alive. Eyewitnesses describe the crowded square in Wolfenbuttel as a "little forest"; some many were the stakes. In fact, in some areas, the inquisitors actually ran out of wood to make the stakes! To economize they resorted to burning a few witches simultaneously.
Another writer, at great danger to himself, reported that "In Germany especially, the smoke from the stake is everywhere." In that country alone, between 1450 and 1550, about one hundred thousand people were burnt to death at the stake for witchcraft. The relentless pursuit of witches there continued unabated into the seventeenth century. In a period of ten years, between 1623 and 1633, six hundred witches were burned in Bamberg. And in Würzburg, within roughly the same period, about nine hundred witches were executed. The majority of the victims were women, though some men and children went to the stake as well. [11]

Admission of Error by the Roman Church

It must have seemed to believers that all of Christendom was afflicted with the terrible curse of witchcraft. Women, under torture, were confessing, among other things to having sex with the devil, to have bore him monstrous children which they fed on flesh of babies and to have given their soul to the devil. However, it never occured to the pious inquistors that it is precisely their method of torture was responsible for creating those confessions. The victims eager to relief themselves of the unbearable pain simply confessed to anything the inquisitors wanted them to! [12]
Then something very strange happened. In 1657 the Congregation of the Holy Office announced that, for a very long time, not a single case of the witch-hunt trials had been conducted properly. In other words, it had admitted that the millions of people who had died under the witch-hunts were innocent! Yet, not a single word of apology came from the Roman Church. [13]

The Protestant Witch Hunts

It would be a mistake to assume that the Roman Catholic Church was solely responsible for the witch-hunts. The Protestant churches persecuted suspected witches with no less zeal than the Catholics. Eschewing papal infallibility, they turn to the concept of the Bible as the ultimate arbiter of truth. And the Bible, as we have seen, clearly spells out the sinfulness of witchcraft and the necessity of imposing the death penalty on witches.
The main figures of the Protestant reformation, Martin Luther (1483-1546) and John Calvin (1509-1564) were staunch advocates of witch-hunting. Luther believed that witches should be burned even if they harmed no one, since they made pacts with the devil. He was personally responsible for at least four witch burnings in Wittenburg. The case for Calvin was simple, as he himself said on one occasion: "The Bible teaches us that there are witches and they must be slain ... this law of God is a universal law." [14] Another prominent Protestant, John Wesley (1703-1791), the founder of the Methodist Church, wrote that anyone who denied the reality of witchcraft was:

in direct opposition not only to the Bible, but to the suffrage of the wisest and best of men in all ages and nations ... Thus giving up of witchcraft is in effect giving up the Bible. [15]

The protestant lands burned at least as many women for witchcraft as the Roman Inquisition burned men for heresy. The numbers executed as witchcraft by the Protestants were not inconsiderable. In a ninety year period, between 1590 and 1680, 4,400 people were executed in Calvinist Scotland for witchcraft.[b] In Anglican England, for a comparable period, 1542-1736, at least a few hundred people suffered the same fate. While most of those executed were women, even here men were not spared as well. When King James (1566-1625) met with a storm on his return voyage from Denmark, a Scottish physician was accused of using witchcraft to generate the tempest. He was tortured and finally burnt at the stake for witchcraft. [16] In Protestant Scotland, the last legal execution for witchcraft happened in 1722: an old woman was burnt at the stake, accused of turning her daughter into a pony and riding her to a witches sabbat. [17] As late as 1782, witches were still being burnt in Switzerland. The Protestants in New England were not to be left out as well. In the last decade of the seventeenth century, at least twenty people were executed for witchcraft in Salem Massachusetts. [18]

Notes

a. The other strong candidate Matthew 27:25. See the section on anti-semitism.
b. Modern estimates are lower that these figures. Professor James Sharpe, a British historian, estimated the number of executions of alleged witches to be "probably more than a thousand." [The Scottish Witchhunt in Context, by Julian Goodacre (ed)Manchester University Press 2000: p. 182]. Another historian, Brian P. Levack, estimated the number executed to be between 1000 and 2000 [Witch Hunting in Scotland: Law, Politics and Religion, Routledge 2007 p.1]. Despite the general "write-down" of the numbers exectued, these still represent a horrific number of people killed especially when we take into account the lower levels of population at that time..
References

1. Graham, The Jesus Hoax: p112
Harris, Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches: p178
Haught, Holy Horrors: p73
2. Robertson, History of Christianity: p207
3. Haught, Holy Horrors: p73
4. Graham, The Jesus Hoax: p112
Harris, Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches: p187
Haught, Holy Horrors: p73-74
Knight, Honest to Man: p90-91
Livingstone, Dictionary of the Church: p558
Ranke-Heinemann, Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven: p229,238
5. Harris, Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches: p187-188
Knight, Honest to Man: p90,94
Ranke-Heinemann, Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven: p153,227,229-230
6. Haught, Holy Horrors: p76
Bailey, Massacres: p42
7. Harris, Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches: p179
Knight, Honest to Man: p91
8. Harris, Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches: p180-181
9. Ibid: p182
10. Knight, Honest to Man: p92-93
11. Bailey, Massacres: p43
Knight, Honest to Man: p91-92
Ranke-Heinemann, Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven: p230
12. de Rosa, Vicars of Christ: p261-262
13. ibid: p265
14. Johnson, A History of Christianity: p309
Knight, Honest to Man: p91
Robertson, History of Christianity: p207
15. Knight, Honest to Man: p95
16. Johnson, History of Christianity: p310
Robertson, History of Christianity: p207-208
17. Haught, Holy Horrors: p78
Knight, Honest to Man: p95
18. Haught, Holy Horrors: p78,124

http://www.rejectionofpascalswager.net/witchhunt.html

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Re: Asal Muasal Dongeng Nenek Sihir & Pembakaran Tukang Sihir dalam Sejarah

Post by Penyaran on Sat Apr 27, 2013 2:20 pm

Kenapa nenek sihir yang notabene digambarkan jahat selalu perempuan? Kenapa kakek sihir seperti Merlin digambarkan sebagai tokoh baik? Karena dalam rangka menjelek-jelekkan Druid (pendeta Pagan) yang mayoritasnya adalah perempuan.

Sebagai catatan, dongeng tentang nenek sihir jahat sudah berakar kuat dalam budaya barat, bahkan pada pop culture modern seperti Hollywood, dongeng tentang nenek sihir jahat tetap populer.

Dongeng-dongeng tersebut selalu menggambarkan nenek sihir jahat, dari mulai Hansel dan Gretel sampai dengan The Blair Witch Project. Padahal, dongeng nenek sihir tersebut asalnya adalah propaganda untuk menjelek-jelekkan pendeta Druid dari agama Pagan, dan juga berbau propaganda mysoginist yang membenci perempuan.





Bahkan dongeng anak-anak saja selalu dicekoki dengan dongeng-dongeng tentang nenek sihir.





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Re: Asal Muasal Dongeng Nenek Sihir & Pembakaran Tukang Sihir dalam Sejarah

Post by Penyaran on Sat Apr 27, 2013 2:28 pm

Film-film kartun Walt Disney bahkan suka menampilkan tokoh jahat berupa nenek sihir. Tak heran pula, jika di dongeng-dongeng kuno penyihir perempuan selalu digambarkan jahat, di film-film modern teroris selalu digambarkan orang Arab.

Walt Disney Pictures: Condoning Misogyny Since 1923

Gender inequality has been part of our culture since the beginning of time, making appearances in Greek mythology, 17th Century European witch hunts, and the US army, in which women were not allowed to participate in combat until the late 1980’s. One would think, however, as we roll into the second decade of the 21st century, we would stop projecting that image to our children.

When I learned about Disney’s latest project, a cute animated twist on the Brothers Grimm classic Rapunzel, I was thrilled, though admittedly slightly puzzled by its title, “Tangled”. A few Google searches later I made a startling discovery; “Tangled,” which opened Nov. 24, had originally been titled “Rapunzel” until Dec. 2009’s “The Princess and the Frog” brought in unimpressive earnings. How, I thought to myself, does one relate to the other? Puzzled, I turned to the blog of young adult fiction and Newberry Honor author Shannon Hale for answers. In a post titled “The Amazing Shrinking Women… Roles” she offered Disney’s view stemming from research and box office reviews: animated children’s movies with “feminine” titles (ie. “Princess” “Rapunzel” etc.) don’t appeal to male audiences, and therefore don’t sell. Period.

This does not pertain solely to movie titles, however. Since its first movie, “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs,” was released in 1937, Walt Disney Pictures has churned out film after film, each as hilarious as the next, but starring a cast of predominantly male characters. This would be much less noticeable had the limited female characters been good role models for young girls and projected an image of strength and beauty without being helpless damsels in distress and as out of proportion as a Barbie doll. Instead, each princess has gone through the same character arc: repressed, dead, asleep, kidnapped, or transfigured damsel in distress, and then the rescued wife of some rugged handsome prince with a body so toned he could beat Chuck Norris in a bar fight. No princess, with the only possible exception of Mulan, has managed to even contemplate saving herself without the help of her impossibly gorgeous male counterpart. Even the Cheetah Girls, in their song “Cinderella,” got that part down.

Last year, Disney finally managed to put together a movie about an African American princess. It was wonderful; the characters were funny and the animation was beautiful, but Tiana still suffered from a waist skinnier than her face and boobs that make me want to get plastic surgery. The single worst offender of this crime, however, is “Sleeping Beauty,” the wonderful Princess Aurora who has a waist that is literally as wide as her neck, perfect skin, unrealistic hair, and toothpick arms. This image of unattainable, fake beauty is projected at young children every day as the norm, leading to self esteem problems in little girls who really shouldn’t be worrying about how many inches around their tummies are, and giving little boys the perfect platform to have unrealistic expectations for the women in their lives.

The lack of true female heroines and the unrealistic body images along with the over-exaggeration of the virtue of the male characters in the Disney animated classics has allowed the youngest members of society to be bombarded with the anti-norm, allowing the seeds of misogyny and gender inequality to be continually planted in the youngest minds of the next generation, a place that should be revered and treasured, not used as dump site for the toxicity of generations past.

http://my.hsj.org/Schools/Newspaper/tabid/100/view/frontpage/schoolid/2888/articleid/401771/newspaperid/2966/Walt_Disney_Pictures_Condoning_Misogyny_Since_1923.aspx

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Re: Asal Muasal Dongeng Nenek Sihir & Pembakaran Tukang Sihir dalam Sejarah

Post by janganbilangbilang on Sat Apr 27, 2013 3:15 pm

nice trit 2 good

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